目前分類:空中大學 (22)

瀏覽方式: 標題列表 簡短摘要

 

 (取材\工商時報 wewkly D11_20131221)  Tomorrow-is the fist blank page of a 365 page book. Write a good one."一 Brad Paisley (布萊德‧派斯里_美國歌手、作曲家)....Make new year's goals. Dig within and discover what you would like to have happen in your life this year...一Melody Beattie (美國作家梅樂蒂.碧媞)

 

 (取材\工商時報 wewkly D11_20131221)

Tomorrow-is the fist blank page of a 365 page book. Write a good one."一 Brad Paisley
(布萊德‧派斯里_美國歌手、作曲家)

Make new year's goals. Dig within and discover what you would like to have happen in your life this year...一Melody Beattie
(美國作家梅樂蒂.碧媞)

 I hope that in this year to come, you make mistakes.
Because if you are making mistakes, then you are making new things, trying new things, learning, living , changing yourself, changing you world.
You're doing things you've never done before, and more importantly, you're Doing Something. (取材\工商時報 wewkly D11_20131221)

Cheers to a new year and another chance for us to get it right一 Oprah Winfrey (美國脫口秀主持人)

 

跑馬燈的語法其實很簡單:作法如下

發表文章>先按左欄的Html>輸入或貼上 <marquee height="50"> 文字區XXXXXX 。</marquee>

例如:marquee 中文意思:跑馬燈 height="50" 高度:框架的畫素,文字大小是預設

<p><marquee height="50">開始輸入文字2013士林官邸菊展11月17日.......尋找鄰近適當停車地點。</marquee></p>

士林官邸網址:新訊息>11月23日,新增加2M高的「圓仔」的造型在園藝展覽館

空大首頁 | student| 氣象局 | JavaScript

My fist test_no.1

 上傳相片    相簿列表>weather      test14

國立空中大學 National Open University

nytimes

 

 

小熊  

感謝筠媽的協助
http://yyw0718.pixnet.net/blog

版型外觀樣式<教學型_滿版_1>

標楷體 小熊18

Photo> w800xh? 在主板

痞客pixnet快捷列 http://panel.pixnet.cc/home#

[部落格]痞客邦部落格HTML架構表


 

Pixnet的安裝youtube原始碼

1>開兩個分頁來做比較容易,分別是 Pixnet的發表文章和想加入的youtube網址

2>首先請將youtube網站中,按分享後,會在下方跳出一個方塊,複製其內容。
複製如:http://youtu.be/CrIfQTOl97k,藍字是影片代碼


3>要在Pixnet安裝youtube,請先
複製Pixnet的安裝原始碼,接著在Pixnet的發表文章,
    按左上角的HTML,將它貼上。
4>接著更改影片代碼下列藍字(示範如下)。
5>儲存文章,送出,發表文章。

二者語法上的差異點:yahoo<embed>.../v/, Pixnet<iframe>.../embed/

Pixnet的安裝原始碼

<iframe src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/CrIfQTOl97k"
width="640" height="360" frameborder="0" title="YouTube video player" allowfullscreen="">

</iframe>

 


 

After a second day of marathon talks in Geneva between Secretary of State John Kerry and Foreign Minister Sergey V. Lavrov of Russia, both sides expressed optimism, while American officials here said //they would give the process a couple of weeks to see //if it gained traction. But daunting obstacles remain to dismantling Syria’s vast chemical arsenal as negotiators try to defuse a confrontation //that has inflamed politics on three continents.

 

 

test124

 

 Nytim

U.S.-Russia Talks on Syria’s Arms Make Progress

WASHINGTON — President Obama will not insist on a United Nations Security Council resolution threatening Syria with military action, senior administration officials said Friday, as American and Russian negotiators meeting in Geneva moved closer to an agreement that would seek to ultimately strip Syria of its chemical weapons.

>> President Obama will not insist

>> senior administration officials said Friday

>> as American and Russian negotiators meeting in Geneva moved closer to an agreement that would seek to ultimately strip Syria of its chemical weapons

>>that would seek to ultimately strip Syria of its chemical weapons


 

 

記著!「括弧現形法」得從「句意」下手,再配合不同形狀的括號來處裡句子之間的關係,括號起來的部份各自也含有主詞及動詞,句意也很完整。

文\紀靜芬國立空中大學外文專任講師

學經歷:美國伊利諾大學香檳校區課程與設計研究所碩士

文章出處

摘錄自空大學訊131.133.136

標題:英文句子:拆一拆、猜一猜!

圖:陳文雄 92空中大學商學學士

RGB(255,205,138)

標題

英文句子拆與猜

作者

紀靜芬

學歷

美國伊利諾大學香檳校區課程與設計研究所碩士

經歷

國立空中大學 外語專任講師

編輯

陳文雄 92 國立空中大學商學學士

範 例 內 容

英文句子的基本概念
摘要

》主部(主詞)和述部(動詞)是英文句子的核心,不能沒有它們

》在「動詞」後面加上修飾字群

》同時為「主詞」及「動詞」加上修飾字群

》句子的主角「主詞」不一定是人或物,它也可以指「一件事」或「一個概念」等

 

焦點

「主部」裡的主角有個專門的稱呼,就叫句子的「主詞」;「述部」裡最主要的那個用來描述主角狀態或動作的字眼,就叫句子的「動詞」。
 

請看下面例句:

內容

不論骨架粗細,人會依照不同的情境或心情來裝扮自己,英文句子也不例外。英文句子也會依照要表達的意思,為「主詞」及「動詞」加上修飾字群,來豐富句子的內容。請看下面的例句

 

例句一:為「主詞」及「動詞」加上修飾字群

主 部

述 部

I

come.

John

is a friend of mine.

Mary and John

go to see a movie.

The dog

belongs to Ms. Chi.

I

didn’t see anybody.

 

 

例句二:是在「動詞」後面加上修飾字群

主 部

述 部

主 詞

動 詞

修 飾

John

is

a friend of mine.

Mary and John

go

to see a movie.

The dog

belongs

to Ms. Chi.

I

didn’t see

anybody.

*I

Know

most people in Quebec speak French.

 

 

例句三:下面的例句是同時為「主詞」及「動詞」加上修飾字群:

主 部

述 部

主 詞

修 飾

動詞

修 飾

*The people

who shop at traditional markets

are

usually really busy.

 

 

句子的主角「主詞」不一定是人或物,它也可以指「一件事」或「一個概念」等,

 

請看例句:

例句四

主 部

述 部

主 詞

動 詞

修 飾

*Memorizing vocabulary and grammar rules

was

necessary.

What he needs to do now

is

to study harder.

Swimming

is

my favorite.

RGB(78,121,70)-(198,231,192)(232,249,229)

空大英文文選課試聽

Chapter 1 \Chapter 2 \Chapter 3 \Chapter 4

Chapter 5 Chapter 6Chapter 7 Chapter 8

Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter

Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter

 

2011.12.4空大實用英文有一位學生寫下的,說:

紀老師讀英文像海潮音,
在可分段處換音調,像平靜的海浪一波一波.那種唸法我睽違20多年了.

 

大家應當可以學在可分段處稍做停頓或換氣.

 

訓練自己眼睛永遠比唸出來的音早好幾個字.

達武老師,是使用英文很道地流利的人,緊張的時候,他也會吃螺絲呀!

我們為什麼要怕聽自己唸的英文呢?

 

英文文選試聽

第一課 笑話(開車時的百態)

chapter 1

 

測試區:  

播放YouTube測試框架與修改W和H的數字,以符合螢幕大小,全螢幕播放鈕在播放螢幕下方YouTube的右邊按口即可。
<iframe src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/WqpJJaoFnMs"
 width="800" height="600" frameborder="0" title="YouTube video player" allowfullscreen=""> 
</iframe>
 

 

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 上午完成月份交替的時薪保全共計8天。7晚班1休。
詳細,3晚1休4晚的夜班工作,每次施作12小時。

7晚的總工作時數=84小時

接下去的三月班表恢復到正常軌道上,做四休二之後輪換日晚班。

這是勞動部最新的規範,每周工作不得超過48小時所做的班表。

算是有良心的班表了,把應該有的工作量和工作休息依照勞動部的新規範施作,

就起碼有喘息的機會,生理時鐘控制在每周輪換一次,而不是像機器般的依工作需求(美其名)高興怎麼排就怎樣排。

 

空大 小熊 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()

從2007版的資料庫,更改了功能顯示和副檔名為.accdb,可以開啟舊的資料庫.mdb(相容或增益集)

> 開始使用資料庫,啟動2007Access, 打開<空白資料庫>或點選<本機範例>有10個,建立檔案名稱如:cho1.accdb及位置,指定資料庫存放資料夾所在,通常放在文件夾/2007練習。

>彈出資料工作表>預設一張<資料表1>和預設的欄位<識別碼>,開始輸入欄位名稱和命名資料表名稱,如:學號/姓名/中心別/學系別
>按功能表的設計檢視<資料工作表檢視>_欄位名稱、<設計檢視_欄位內容/屬性的調整>、建立主索引鍵(已建立完成的主索引且完成關聯圖時,欲更換主索引時,必須回到關聯圖區刪除關聯後再回頭做主索引的建立)
>更名預設的資料表1名稱為正式明稱。

 

2013/12/28 模仿空大的實習課程 如下: 建立五張資料表、更改欄位屬性/大小....(透過最左邊的檢視)、建立關聯圖一對多、建立主索引。

下面這張表,其實是將大的資料表切割成五個部分,中繼表單是[選課資料]--[學生基本資料表]+[課程資料表],產生多對多的連結。

2007Access

未命名  

關聯圖的建立

資料庫1228> 建立五個資料表

學生基本資料
選課資料
課程資料
老師基本資料
授課資料

例如:學生基本資料_設計檢視_更改預設值

識別碼> 自動編碼>紀錄輸入識別管理
學號>文字_欄位9 (預255)
姓名>文字_欄位8
中心別>文字 _所屬學習指導中心_欄位6
學系別>文字_14
出生日期>日期/時間_格式_簡短日期

性別>文字_欄位大小2
電話>文字>欄位大小15
郵遞區號>文字_欄位大小5
地址>文字_欄位大小50
累計總學分> 數字_欄位_位元組_小數位數0(自動_預設值0(空白_必須有資料(否_文字對騎(一般
身分別>是/否_格式Y/N_索引_否, 文字對騎_一般

*資料的<匯入>與複製/貼上新紀錄>---注意:若拿到(主索引)或者(不可重複)的資料,例如:客戶基本資料只能有一筆,不可重複

由excel的工作表匯入另存成<資料表1>,游標放到<資料表1>的第一欄的左邊>成右方向鍵-->時,按滑鼠左鍵下拉選取區域/按右鍵複製/打開另一資料表/貼上新紀錄

 > 2013_12_30 進度 將空大歡樂音樂屋之前.mdb轉換成2007的.accdb,
另存資料夾到<文件夾>/2007Access_練習.../ ;原空大資料庫維持不動。
另外,要注意的,在CD資料表中,關於欄位的屬性設定是有學問的,
例如:按設計檢視之後,資料表的第四欄位(演唱者)_在屬性欄位內容_標題_演唱者,但在欄位名稱是使用(歌手編號),

>2013_12_30 主資料表示一&對多_關聯資料表,Access最動崁入到主資料表,並在左側顯示+,最多可達八層

新增子資料工作表(但注意:僅用來檢視,避免在這裡編輯,容易出錯_滑鼠滾動造成資料變動),應該在(表單)中檢視會比較妥切的方式

http://office.microsoft.com/zh-tw/access-help/HA010266800.aspx

 

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註解的運用:2007試算表_儲存格自動彈出圖片或註解文字, 當游標移到儲存格時自動彈出註解方塊。
特色:結合文字註解與圖片顯示和色彩與邊框修飾

*通常不列印註解下只有兩個工作: 插入>建立註解....,編輯註解> 校閱,
重點提示: 把游標放到彈出的方塊邊框上呈左右方向,按右鍵.....

插入))=建立註解游標到儲存格位置時,照片自動彈出,運用在教師學生、商品編號結合商品圖片、註解的說明文字或備忘

在試算表的儲存格>功能表>插入>右鍵>插入註解>游標一道邊框成左右方向>右鍵>註解格式> 色彩和線條>填滿>色彩.下拉> 填滿效果>圖片>選取圖片>按插入_出現圖片縮圖>按確定回原選單>按確定\

 

))=編輯註解圖片顯示在儲存格右側,調整大小

編修))=儲存格>按右鍵>編輯註解> 方塊反白_清除編輯文字\ 游標到邊框_調整大小_拖拉位置

 

編輯註解))=校閱 > 個別的顯示\隱藏;全部的註解 顯示\隱藏

  • 編輯註解_註解文字的編輯
  • 編輯註解_圖片\色彩,將游標放置到邊框上,游標呈左右方向縮圖
  •  

))=列印註解> 功能表的> 版面配置> 版面設定_右下角口的下方下拉式選單>版面設定>工作表>註解_選單_註解顯示在工作表底端\和工作的顯示相同> 預覽列印

))=

運用:

學校教師_如學號6010844插入註解_學生特質文字敘述與圖片  

產品編號或文字_插入註解,方便介紹或產品圖片

員工編號或文字_插入註解_新進人員訓練或圖片

縮圖:關鍵在建立註解_插入>插入註解之後的編修,*記得要把游標方在邊框上,出現左右鍵> 按右鍵

註解1  

 

插入  

  

 

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大約一個月刊登二次徵才作業員資訊,不像是旺季缺人?像是...

在面試時我詢問之下面試官和在旁的助理,他們紛紛表示網站無法登載太多,我心裡直覺????是這樣的嗎?

上個月才刊登徵才作業員,這個月又刊登徵才同性質的職缺,這是一家有歷史的牛奶糖生產商

我去了就業服務站一探究竟,果然工作內容所要求的條件很.....

請看他的班表,大概就知道,不敢詳登的原因了。(再度應驗了一句企業老闆脫口而出,我是企業可不是慈善事業)

 Milk candy plant 勞力作業員分析表.jpg     

 


職務性質:正職
職務名稱:作業員102年12月11日(週三)下午2:00-4:00北投站徵才

雇用人數:8人
應徵截止日期:截至民國102年12月11日
工作內容:
1. 製造、包裝(能配合輪班及假日加班)
2. 工作地點:北投區中央南路2段22號
3. 待遇:22,500~27,000 (實際告知是月薪27,000)
4. 2013/12/11北投站現場徵才
活動時間:102年12月11日(週三)下午2:00-4:00
活動地點:北投就業服務站(捷運「北投站」光明路出口,北投區行政大樓內)
活動地址:臺北市北投區新市街30號5樓
※歡迎踴躍參加!請逕洽各櫃檯服務人員或電洽2898-1819


我的實際面談:離去前看了服務站的牆上的鐘,面試已進行一個小時,共16人應徵,男性3人,女性13人,幾乎都是來應徵所謂的「作業員」。面試官2人\男性,女助理1人。

實際面談時間:約8分鐘結束,旁邊的助理催人(因為後面還有等候者)
公司名稱:台灣x永製菓股份有限公司
就業服務處:北投就業服務站
職缺內容及僱用條件:作業員
平均一個班需人力搬重:如上的圖表,及工作型態
學歷要求:高中畢業(含)以上
休假:每月四天
平均每月有四天假日加班

班表如上圖:三班制

早班04AM~1300PM (我沒打錯,確實如此!有二度向面試官確認時間)
中班AM11:00~08:00PM
晚班0730PM~0500AM(基本連續上五天,每隔2~3期)

面談後心得:這樣的工作最適合的人選大家一看就知道,但來應徵的人幾乎全倒(雇用條件被技巧性的隱藏或規避),

下次當您找工作有遇到相類似一個月刊登職缺超過兩次的廣告時,注意!這可能有隱含資訊未公開!得詢問清楚!

但通常要你到現場時,見到了面試者願意告訴您,否則不用幾分鐘就催人了。即使歷史悠久的公司,照樣

從上述的實際應徵結果,顯然9成9的求職民眾對該訊息的解讀和該公司需要的人,出入是相當兩極,

這是從來應徵人員的年齡得知的。

把應徵的實際歷程略述,免得過不了多久,又登了但我想不起來那是甚麼樣的工作了。

 

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我使用的瀏覽器是ie9

我的系統是Windows Vista

學校名稱:國立空中大學 National Open Unuversity

系別:商學系/ 學士

摘要:

有些時候因學習上的需要時,如製作網頁地圖或其他用途須更動原始碼,
我們會複使用瀏覽中的(XXX.html)網頁的原始碼,再貼到(記事本)接著存成.html檔來觀察網頁呈現結果,

發現當開啟檔案時,html網頁會出現亂碼,無法正常字體,我對照之後,發現很有意思,只要刪除原始碼字符當中的橫槓(-)如:charset="utf-8",

刪後charset="utf8",在存回去原檔名或另存成.html, 重新打開更正後的html,發現網頁竟然恢復正常字體。

將發現結果,製作簡短說明,供空中大學學弟妹參考! 祝~學習愉快

問題描述與解決方法:(不包括將網頁另存為新檔,兩者差異在檔案的大小,)

正常情形是經由>檢視>編碼>Unicode(UTF_8)>改選繁體中文 (Big5),就可以改正亂碼現象,恢復網頁。

問題在哪?

問題1:正常瀏覽網頁OK,但有時因學習需要,必須使用原始碼,當複製原始碼貼到<記事本>存成副檔名為(XXX.html)時,

再用瀏覽器ie打開時,出現亂碼無法出現正常字體。

解決方式: 竟然是只要刪除原始碼字符的(-),就可以恢復字體了。

改正前<meta....charset="utf-8">, 在原始碼的前段可以輕易地找到它。

改正後:<meta....charset="utf8">, 刪除橫槓( -),結果恢復字體,另存新檔檔時會出現警示方塊,

繼續>編碼方式為在下端的<ANSI>編碼

例子1:以空大首頁為例,上網瀏覽正常,下載原始碼存成.html, ie打開出現亂碼,修正後解決了亂碼現象 

<head>
<title>---國立空中大學---</title>
<meta charset="utf-8">

例子2:以yahoo blog

<head>
        <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=
utf-8">    
更正後<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf8">

 例子3:中央氣象局 (http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V7/)

        的原始碼網頁中超連結有經控制,有時會會出現ie9分頁同時卡住,重新整理或關掉ie就可以了,

         我覺得,他的網頁設計精良,的確是練習的好題材之一。

同樣也會出現亂碼現象,經改正後字體恢復。

小結論:

當網頁原始檔<貼到記事本>要另存新檔時的下方的 因編碼方式的選擇不同所所產生的字體亂碼現象。

1.電腦預設值編碼方式>( ANSI譯美國國家準協會),假如不更改原始碼 UTF-8時,會出現亂碼,但直接只更正原始碼之後存回去,
  即使在ANSI的編碼下仍可恢復字體修正亂碼現象,在我的採用的例子裡所採用直接更正原始碼之後存回去,其他都不改下完成。

2.正確的存檔方式,需在下拉式中選擇其中>編碼方式>為(unicode譯萬國碼) 就可以了,就不會出現亂碼現象了。

3.若只是瀏覽網頁,到上方工具列的檢視>編碼>改成繁體中文Big5,應該就可以恢復字體了。

4.不同的瀏覽器會有不同的狀況和解決方式,這裡只以瀏覽器ie9為例。

 

 

空大 小熊 發表在 痞客邦 留言(2) 人氣()

T107map_600.png  

                                                範例區如下: 超連結只做了二個北市和新北市 

<p>

<a href="http://assf0102.pixnet.net/album/photo/292682307">

<img title="T107map_600.png" src="http://pic.pimg.tw/assf0102/1381216482-310182216.pngwidth="601" height="750" usemap="#map" border="0" />

</a> &nbsp;</p>

<p><map name="map">

<area title="Keelung" shape="poly" coords="506,52,509,49,493,60,509,78,526,82,526,65,532,66,525,54,508,51" nohref="nohref" />
 
<area title="Taipei" shape="poly" coords="486,48,483,44,463,54,457,57,466,70,474,74,462,83,470,87,478,92,491,97,497,90,500,81,491,68,486,46,486,45" href="http://www.taipei.gov.tw/" />
 
<area title="xinbei" shape="poly" coords="480,45,496,39,486,29,460,42,432,69,454,83,450,96,437,105,461,128,460,141,470,163,489,141,539,103,551,95,568,92,548,64,528,74,527,87,503,79,491,102,462,91,458,72,459,58,488,43" href="http://www.ntpc.gov.tw/web/Home?command=display&amp;page=flash" />
 

Ps. 原提示字 alt 更改為 title 就會出現提示的小方塊

 

空大 小熊 發表在 痞客邦 留言(1) 人氣()


 

英語新聞的語法結構


摘自http://www.cybertranslator.idv.tw/grammar/newsenglish_syntax.htm

 



. 弄懂標題 (headline)

2. 語法

英文報紙編輯喜愛的標題型式不盡相同,但大多數新聞的標題長度平均為89個字。

另外,逾 60% 的報紙或新聞採用典型英文句子的語法結構

亦即主詞 + 動詞 +句子其他元素。

例如。

U.S. Bombs Baghdad

Inner-City Teen Talks
About Drugs


第二種標題型式是沒有動詞的名詞片語。

這樣的標題可以簡單到只剩下一個名詞和一個修飾語,如下面的標題:

Killer 'cane!
(
殺人颶風 -- 'cane hurricane 的簡寫)


不管標題採用何種形式,它都是以「言簡意賅」、「提綱挈領」、「一語中的」為最高指導原則,所以經常「當省則省」;
這意思是說,為了使句子或片語簡潔有力,擲地有鏗鏘之聲,句子或片語會省略掉一些字。冠詞
(或限定詞) the a(n) 常常被省略。
例如:
[The] Prime Ministers of
[the] two Koreas agree to meet


再者,be
動詞的所有簡單式 (尤其是 is are) 亦經常被省略,如下面的標題:

Otsuki [is] found guilty
of murder


West Bank, Gaza [are]
quiet on uprising anniversary


在上面最後一個例子中,West Bank
Gaza

之間的 "and" 被逗點所取代,

這也會節省空間 (見下表的標點符號說明) 



標題中的標點符號


逗點 (comma)

1.
取代 "and"Income, spending up sharply


2.
正常功能的應用,亦即被用來分開一系列的字或片語:


Massive,
Mobile UN force...
(
分開一系列的字 -- 這裡是形容詞)


19 hrs. after
deadline, the war began
  (
分開一系列的片語)


冒號 (colon)

1.
用在一個字或片語之後來解釋該字或片語:


Washington prediction: slow growth, no recession


2.
用在人名之後來表示該人士所說的話而不必精確地引述他或她的話:


John: I'll take test
 

單引號 (single quotation marks) --
標題使用單引號,內文則使用雙引號 (double quotation marks)

1. 精確地引述他或她所說的話。整個標題
(或副標題)
可能用一個單引號框起來,也有可能是僅一個字或幾個字以引號框起來。

說話者的名字可以加在標題中,但也可以不加:


'The campaign of presidential elections has begun' President Wang

Iraqi air force 'decimated'


2. 用來代替不是很有名的人士的姓名或是名稱詰屈聱牙或很專門、很技術性的事物:

Just 2 years [jail term] for 'beauty queen' thief

'Suicide machine' takes first life


3. 動詞

標題中的動詞通常用現在式,以強調報導的即時性或立即性,

畢竟「新聞」(news)
只有在立即、當下、現在的情況才是「最新的」(new)

當然,這也有例外的情況。有時一些過去的事件會以過去式來報導,

如下面的標題:

19 hrs. after deadline, the war began


未來式偶爾也會出現,如:

4 large companies will reduce emissions that harm ozone layer

未來式並不常用來表示未來事件。

反之,請注意:新聞英文通常用 "is to + 動詞"
(
"are to + 動詞")
這樣的現在式來表示未來的意思

如下例:

Liz Taylor, 8th husband [are] to be wed this week


(be 動詞 "are" 可以省略;這裡之所以將它加入標題,是為了讓讀者比較容易瞭解)


現在式的標題有時是以被動語態撰寫 (參見下表的「被動態的標題」)

事實上,有些報紙每4個標題就有1個用被動態,但有些報紙則很少使用被動態。
 



被動態的標題


被動態是由 be 動詞 + 主動詞的過去分詞所構成

例如:


被動態標題:Melbourne mayor is stabbed by angry voter


          句中 voter 是做動作的人(agent)


主動態標題:Angry voter stabs Melbourne mayor


                      句中 voter 是做動作的人(agent)
 


agent
不知道是誰或不重要時,它就被省略掉:


Melbourne
mayor is stabbed
 


注意:別把減化的標題中的現在式被動態與過去式主動態 (這在標題中非常罕見) 搞混了。例如:


被動態:Mayor stabbed at midnight =
Mayor
is stabbed
at midnight


並非


主動態:Mayor stabbed
someone at
midnight


這句是說「市長半夜遭刺」而非「市長半夜刺人」。




新聞標題中會使用到幾個特殊的動詞片語來表示報導中的資訊是由別人 --
亦即消息來源 --
告訴記者的,而非記者自己蒐集的。新聞報導中可能會,也可能不會提到消息來源的名字。美國法律保護秘密消息來源的身份;記者不能被迫說出他或她的名字。最常見的
三個用來表示這種間接報導的字詞是:

is said to, is reported to reportedly
(
參見下表的「標題中的間接報導」)


對編輯來說,他們有很好的理由必須在用字選詞上小心謹慎與正確精準。也許記者並不確定消息來源是否十分可靠;也有可能是記者沒有機會親自查證消息的正確性
;或者是標題中的主題是一相當敏感的政治問題,因此發行人想要保持客觀而僅報導事實和已公布的聲明。尤其是在有關犯罪或審判的報導中,記者必須小心謹慎
,不要對案件未審先判或做出莫須有的指控。

 



標題中的間接報導


1. [is]
said to


Melbourne mayor said
to
be near death


消息來源
--
可能是這位市長的幕僚或醫院的人員 --
說市長即將駕鶴西歸。
 


2. [is] reported to


Melbourne mayor is
reported to
have Mafia connections


可靠消息來源說,這位市長與黑手黨掛勾。


(沒有報紙會將這一說法當作事實印出來,除非它已在法庭中被證實。)
 


3.
reportedly


Mayor's birthday party reportedly cost city
$25G


可靠消息來源 --
可能握有某種證據 --
說這場 party
花掉了市庫 25,000
美元。


(句中的 G grand 的縮寫,為美國俚語的一千美元
= a thousand dollars --
下面我們會對標題中的數字做詳細的說明。)





4. 名稱


你要如何一眼就看出一篇報導是屬於何種類型的新聞呢?


標題能給我們什麼線索或提示呢?
答案是:人名、國名、地名、球隊名稱、組織名稱等等。

有些英文報紙每個標題至少都會有一個名稱,有些則甚少用到名稱。

但根據分析,約有 75% 的標題會有人名、國名、地名等名稱。


 


標題中的人名通常是政府官員或各領域的名流或前知名人士。新聞報導的主要對象通常是人 
-- 他們說了什麼做了什麼。而且這個對象通常是「個人」
--  他或她說了什麼做了什麼。至於團體、組織、機構、公司或部門則通常由其領導人、負責人或代表予以擬人化。


當然,你不可能知道標題中所有的人名、國名、地名、球隊名稱、組織名稱,但這些名稱都會在報導中的第一句或前兩句有所敘述。所以,即使你不認識標題中的人物、
城市或球隊,只要繼續往下閱讀一定會有所瞭解。


 


5. 數字


數字在新聞報導中的功能有如形容詞且與說明它們的名詞和符號寫在一起,

"$51" "20 years"

然而,新聞報導為節省空間亦有一些單獨使用數字的慣例,尤其是在標題中。

一般而言,當數字單獨出現時,它們通常指的是人數,如下面的標題所示:


Anti-smoking efforts will save 3 million

這裡指的是300萬人的生命。


年齡亦可單獨使用數字來表示,不必用到字。

在下面的標題中,6
這個數字前後用逗點與上下文隔開,指的是這名男孩的年齡。


Boy, 6, killed by 18-wheeler


第二個數詞 "18-wheeler" 是口語的18輪大卡車。


在體育版中,數字就是新聞,指的是球隊、團體或個人所締造的分數。


Red Sox
Beat Yankees, 4-3


上句甚至是頭版的標題。這是說美國大聯盟職棒的波士頓紅襪隊獲得4分獲勝,

而紐約洋基隊獲得3分敗北。


序數
(first, second, third, fourth, fifth, etc. 第一、第二、第三、第四、第五等等)
通常是以數字加該字最後兩個字母來印刷。因此,它們就變成
1st, 2nd,
3rd, 4th, 5th
等等,如下例:


Strike
enters 4th day at Sisy Steel Co.


(second third 也可以分別以 2d 3d 來表示。)


當數字出現在 dollar 的符號 ($)
之後時,它們的意思不言可喻:錢的金額。有時數字的後面會跟著B,
G
M這樣的字母。這些字母分別指
10 (billion)1 (G grand 的縮寫,為美國俚語的一千美元 = a thousand dollars )
100 (million)。例如:


Storm
damage estimated at $2.5m


(注意:"$"
在寫作中是寫在數字的前面,但在口語中,

我們是先唸數字再唸
"$",如上例的 "$2.5m"
要唸成 "two and a half million dollars")


6. 文字遊戲


雖然上面已對標題的單字、語法和標點符號做了詳細的說明,但有時我們還是會碰到不按牌理出牌,不遵照規則和慣例的標題,這是因為下標題的人偶爾會玩一下文字遊戲。


他們最常玩的文字遊戲是「押頭韻」(alliteration)。請看下面有關兩支美國職棒球隊的例句:


Sad Sox
Battle Bronx Bombers


如果您大聲朗讀,您就會聽出第一個字母 S
B
的音重複出現,這就是押頭韻。

下面是「今日美國報」(USA Today) 一則有關洛杉磯道奇隊和底特律老虎隊這兩支大聯盟冠軍球隊比賽之報導的標題:


L.A. in
huff over Detroit rough stuff


請大聲朗讀就可聽出 "huff-rough-stuff" 這幾個字是押韻的。

句中
"(be) in a
huff"
是個成語,意為「發怒」,"over"
在此意為「對於」(=
about)
,而 "rough stuff"
是個慣用語,意為「粗暴的行為」(或在比賽中使用暴力)

整句的意思是「洛杉磯道奇隊對於底特律老虎隊在比賽中使用暴力怒不可遏」。
 


. 解讀導言 (lead)

1. 導言的目的


標題使用約410個字來說明一篇新聞報導的主題。導言位在標題之下;

顧名思義,它是一篇報導的第一段。新聞報導有兩種導言:一為「新聞導言」(news
lead)
,又叫做「提要式導言」(summary lead),它重述主題並提供最重要的資訊和事實,

它通常包含記者發稿日期和地點 (dateline -- 參見下面第2項的說明)
以及一個句子 --
叫做導句 (lead sentence)

另一種導言叫做「激發讀者興趣的導言」(interest lead)

其目的是在吸引讀者的目光,讓他們產生繼續閱讀下去的興趣。interest lead
通常用於特稿 (feature articles)、富人情味的報導
(human interest stories) 或社論 (editorials)


2. 發稿日期和地點 (dateline)


過去交通不發達,一則新聞從記者發稿到見報可能已經過好幾天的時間,因此在報導的開頭都會有所謂的 dateline,即記者發稿的日期和地點。然而,現今科學昌明,科技高度發展,新聞傳播早已進入衛星時代,因此現在一則新聞即使從地球某一端發稿到地球另一端見報,往往都不會超過一天的時間。所以,大多數報紙現在都不會刊出完整的
dateline;它們只刊出記者發稿的城市名稱
--
字母全部大寫 (若其後還有國名,則國名僅第一個字母大寫,其餘字母小寫)。新聞實際發生的日期則被一致認定是讀者閱報的前一天。目前僅剩幾家報紙仍採用傳統的 dateline,亦即發稿日期和地點均刊出。

不過,美聯社(AP)、法新社 (AFP)
和路透社 (Reuters)
等國際知名通訊社還是會標示完整的 dateline


有些新聞報導完全沒有發稿日期和地點。

這有三個原因:

第一. 這些報導是在總社撰稿;

第二. 事件並非僅發生在單一城市,或該報記者在好幾個城市做綜合報導;

第三. 該報導比較沒有時間性和地點性,如週日版的特稿。


3. 語法結構


新聞記者都知道有些讀者只看標題和導言。

所以,大多數的提要式導言都是冗長的敘述,由兩個或多個子句 (clauses)
所構成;而激發讀者興趣的導言可能是冗長的敘述,也可能是簡短的敘述,或是問句。


根據對從英美5家報紙所挑選出來的50個導句所做的分析,僅少數導句只含一個子句。

記者通常需要複句 (complex sentences) 才能呈現他們的資訊

所以,大多數導言都含有一個或兩個附屬或從屬子句

英國「泰晤士報」(The Times)
的記者最常在導句中使用一個以上的附屬子句。對於子句和句子種類還不是很瞭解的讀者可參考「文法寫作指南」的子句句子結合的技巧


大部分的導言都把主要子句放在最前面,

好讓讀者一眼就能找到主要主詞(通常是人) 動詞


在新聞寫作中,

最常用的附屬字是形容詞子句或稱關係子句中的關係代名詞 whothat

前者只能用來指人,後者可以指人或指事物,而另一個關代 which
則僅能指事物。

that 也可以當附屬連接詞,引導名詞子句當主動詞的受詞。

在報紙的新聞報導中,"...said that"
"...reported that"
相當常見。例如:

PANMUNJOM,
Korea - North and South Korea
yesterday
announced
that the prime ministers of the two countries
will meet....


這個
that
可以省略,尤其是在 "said"
之後。因此,上面的例句可以寫成 "North and South Korea said the
prime ministers of the two countries will
meet...."
。這句的主要子句為
"North and South Korea said"

而附屬子句為 "(that) the prime ministers of the two countries will meet...."

然而,在許多情況中,主要子句是放在附屬子句的後面,例如:

NEW YORK -
By 2010, 1 in 9 children admitted to USA hospitals may have AIDS, an expert predicts.


當句子是以附屬子句做開頭時,附屬連接詞 that
一定要省略。再看一例:


WASHINGTON
- Personal income and spending rose a strong 0.9 percent in December, the
government said yesterday....


這樣的句子是把要強調的事件放在開頭首要的位置,

而把被認為比較不重要的事件陳述者或消息來源放在後面次要的地方。


標題中出現的名稱會在導句中加以說明。有時這項說明只是一個緊鄰該名稱的名詞片語而已,如下面的導句:


MOSCOW,
Wednesday, April 11 - Vladimir Putin,
the
Russian leader
, was shown on national
television Tuesday night....


這個名詞片語在文法中叫做同位語 (appositive)

同位語的前後可使用逗點或破折號 (dash)來與句子其他部分隔開,成為插入語句。

這一插入語句也可以是關係子句的形式
-- "Vladimir Putin, who is the Russian
leader
, was shown...." --
但使用同位語可以省字,也就是節省空間。

許多導句至少都還有另一個附屬子句,

但太多的子句往往造成閱讀上的困難或意思上的混淆。


有些記者使用分詞片語 (participial phrases) 來敘述或修飾人或事物。

分詞片語包括現在分詞和過去分詞片語,它們看起來好像主動態或被動態動詞的一部份,

但它們不具主動詞的功能。

分詞片語緊跟在它們所修飾的名詞 (通常為主詞)之後。

例如:


TOULOUSE, France, July 19 (AP) - A train
moving at 30 miles an hour hit another train
stopped with mechanical problems today and 15 people were
reported wounded.


在上例中,"moving at 30 miles an hour"


"stopped with mechanical problems"

分別為現在分詞 (moving)
與過去分詞 (stopped) 片語。


其實,不管是同位語還是分詞片語,它們都是關係子句,即形容詞子句的減化。

所以上例可以改寫或還原為
"A train which was moving at 30
miles an hour hit another train
which
had
stopped with mechanical problems...."

有些報紙每個導句中往往使用一個以上的分詞片語,但有些報紙則鮮少使用 --
後者的語法結構顯然比較簡單,因此也就比較容易閱讀。
 


Guide to Grammar and
Writing

 

 

 



新聞英語的語法結構
Syntax of News
English



摘自http://www.cybertranslator.idv.tw/grammar/newsenglish_syntax.htm





.
弄懂標題
(headline)


1. 前言


儘管讀者喜愛的新聞因人而異,但所有標題都要具備新奇、稀有或與個人有關等等要素
的其中一項或多項,才能抓住讀者的目光。


有時一個標題尚不足以概述所有重要資訊,此時會有所謂「副標題」(subheadline) 的出現。副標題位在主標題之下,字體較小。如上述,主標題和副標題是一篇新聞報導的摘要,所以他們當中的字大多會重複出現在新聞內容中。


2. 語法


英文報紙編輯喜愛的標題型式不盡相同,但大多數新聞的標題長度平均為89個字。另外,逾 60% 的報紙或新聞採用典型英文句子的語法結構,亦即主詞
+
動詞 +
句子其他元素。例如。


U.S. Bombs
Baghdad


Inner-City Teen Talks
About Drugs


第二種標題型式是沒有動詞的名詞片語。這樣的標題可以簡單到只剩下一個名詞和一個修飾語,如下面的標題:


Killer 'cane!
(
殺人颶風 -- 'cane hurricane 的簡寫)


不管標題採用何種形式,它都是以「言簡意賅」、「提綱挈領」、「一語中的」為最高指導原則,所以經常「當省則省」;
這意思是說,為了使句子或片語簡潔有力,擲地有鏗鏘之聲,句子或片語會省略掉一些字。冠詞
(或限定詞) the a(n) 常常被省略。例如:


[The] Prime Ministers of
[the] two Koreas agree to meet


再者,be
動詞的所有簡單式 (尤其是 is are) 亦經常被省略,如下面的標題:


Otsuki [is] found guilty
of murder


West Bank, Gaza [are]
quiet on uprising anniversary


在上面最後一個例子中,West Bank
Gaza
之間的 "and"
被逗點所取代,這也會節省空間 (見下表的標點符號說明)


 




標題中的標點符號


逗點 (comma)


1.
取代 "and"Income, spending up
sharply


2.
正常功能的應用,亦即被用來分開一系列的字或片語:


Massive,
Mobile UN force...
(
分開一系列的字 -- 這裡是形容詞)


19 hrs. after
deadline, the war began
  (
分開一系列的片語)


冒號 (colon)


1.
用在一個字或片語之後來解釋該字或片語:


Washington prediction: slow
growth, no recession


2.
用在人名之後來表示該人士所說的話而不必精確地引述他或她的話:


John: I'll
take test
 


單引號 (single quotation marks) --
標題使用單引號,內文則使用雙引號 (double quotation
marks)


1. 精確地引述他或她所說的話。整個標題
(或副標題)
可能用一個單引號框起來,也有可能是僅一個字或幾個字以引號框起來。說話者的名字可以加在標題中,但也可以不加:


'The campaign of presidential elections has begun'
President
Wang


Iraqi air force 'decimated'


2. 用來代替不是很有名的人士的姓名或是名稱詰屈聱牙或很專門、很技術性的事物:


Just 2 years [jail term] for 'beauty queen'
thief


'Suicide machine' takes first
life


3. 動詞


標題中的動詞通常用現在式,以強調報導的即時性或立即性,畢竟「新聞」(news)
只有在立即、當下、現在的情況才是「最新的」(new)。當然,這也有例外的情況。有時一些過去的事件會以過去式來報導,如下面的標題:


19 hrs.
after deadline, the war began


未來式偶爾也會出現,如:


4 large
companies will reduce emissions that harm ozone layer


但未來式並不常用來表示未來事件。反之,請注意:新聞英文通常用 "is to +
動詞"
(
"are to +
動詞")
這樣的現在式來表示未來的意思,如下例:


Liz
Taylor, 8th husband [are] to be wed this week


(be
動詞 "are"
可以省略;這裡之所以將它加入標題,是為了讓讀者比較容易瞭解)


現在式的標題有時是以被動語態撰寫 (參見下表的「被動態的標題」)。事實上,有些報紙每4個標題就有1個用被動態,但有些報紙則很少使用被動態。
 




被動態的標題


被動態是由 be
動詞 +
主動詞的過去分詞所構成。例如:


被動態標題:Melbourne mayor is stabbed by angry
voter


                  句中 voter 是做動作的人(agent)


主動態標題:Angry voter stabs Melbourne
mayor


                      句中 voter 是做動作的人(agent)
 


agent
不知道是誰或不重要時,它就被省略掉:

Melbourne
mayor is stabbed
 


注意:別把減化的標題中的現在式被動態與過去式主動態 (這在標題中非常罕見) 搞混了。例如:


被動態:Mayor stabbed at midnight =
Mayor
is stabbed
at midnight


並非


主動態:Mayor stabbed
someone at
midnight


這句是說「市長半夜遭刺」而非「市長半夜刺人」。




新聞標題中會使用到幾個特殊的動詞片語來表示報導中的資訊是由別人 --
亦即消息來源 --
告訴記者的,而非記者自己蒐集的。新聞報導中可能會,也可能不會提到消息來源的名字。美國法律保護秘密消息來源的身份;記者不能被迫說出他或她的名字。最常見的
三個用來表示這種間接報導的字詞是:
is said to, is
reported to

reportedly
(
參見下表的「標題中的間接報導」)


對編輯來說,他們有很好的理由必須在用字選詞上小心謹慎與正確精準。也許記者並不確定消息來源是否十分可靠;也有可能是記者沒有機會親自查證消息的正確性
;或者是標題中的主題是一相當敏感的政治問題,因此發行人想要保持客觀而僅報導事實和已公布的聲明。尤其是在有關犯罪或審判的報導中,記者必須小心謹慎
,不要對案件未審先判或做出莫須有的指控。

 



標題中的間接報導


1. [is]
said to

Melbourne mayor said
to
be near death

消息來源
--
可能是這位市長的幕僚或醫院的人員 --
說市長即將駕鶴西歸。
 


2. [is] reported to

Melbourne mayor is
reported to
have Mafia connections


可靠消息來源說,這位市長與黑手黨掛勾。


(沒有報紙會將這一說法當作事實印出來,除非它已在法庭中被證實。)
 


3.
reportedly


Mayor's birthday party reportedly cost city
$25G


可靠消息來源 --
可能握有某種證據 --
說這場 party
花掉了市庫 25,000
美元。


(句中的 G grand 的縮寫,為美國俚語的一千美元
= a thousand dollars --
下面我們會對標題中的數字做詳細的說明。)





4. 名稱


你要如何一眼就看出一篇報導是屬於何種類型的新聞呢?


標題能給我們什麼線索或提示呢?
答案是:人名、國名、地名、球隊名稱、組織名稱等等。有些英文報紙每個標題至少都會有一個名稱,有些則甚少用到名稱。但根據分析,約有
75% 的標題會有人名、國名、地名等名稱。


 


標題中的人名通常是政府官員或各領域的名流或前知名人士。新聞報導的主要對象通常是人 
-- 他們說了什麼做了什麼。而且這個對象通常是「個人」
--  他或她說了什麼做了什麼。至於團體、組織、機構、公司或部門則通常由其領導人、負責人或代表予以擬人化。


當然,你不可能知道標題中所有的人名、國名、地名、球隊名稱、組織名稱,但這些名稱都會在報導中的第一句或前兩句有所敘述。所以,即使你不認識標題中的人物、
城市或球隊,只要繼續往下閱讀一定會有所瞭解。


 


5. 數字


數字在新聞報導中的功能有如形容詞且與說明它們的名詞和符號寫在一起,如 "$51"
"20
years"
。然而,新聞報導為節省空間亦有一些單獨使用數字的慣例,尤其是在標題中。一般而言,當數字單獨出現時,它們通常指的是人數,如下面的標題所示:


Anti-smoking efforts will save 3 million


這裡指的是300萬人的生命。


年齡亦可單獨使用數字來表示,不必用到字。在下面的標題中,6
這個數字前後用逗點與上下文隔開,指的是這名男孩的年齡。


Boy, 6,
killed by 18-wheeler


第二個數詞 "18-wheeler" 是口語的18輪大卡車。


在體育版中,數字就是新聞,指的是球隊、團體或個人所締造的分數。


Red Sox
Beat Yankees, 4-3


上句甚至是頭版的標題。這是說美國大聯盟職棒的波士頓紅襪隊獲得4分獲勝,而紐約洋基隊獲得3分敗北。


序數
(first,
second, third, fourth, fifth, etc.
第一、第二、第三、第四、第五等等)
通常是以數字加該字最後兩個字母來印刷。因此,它們就變成
1st, 2nd,
3rd, 4th, 5th
等等,如下例:


Strike
enters 4th day at Sisy Steel Co.


(second
third
也可以分別以 2d
3d
來表示。)


當數字出現在 dollar 的符號 ($)
之後時,它們的意思不言可喻:錢的金額。有時數字的後面會跟著B,
G
M這樣的字母。這些字母分別指
10 (billion)1 (G
grand
的縮寫,為美國俚語的一千美元 = a thousand dollars )
100 (million)。例如:


Storm
damage estimated at $2.5m


(注意:"$"
在寫作中是寫在數字的前面,但在口語中,我們是先唸數字再唸
"$",如上例的 "$2.5m"
要唸成 "two and a half million
dollars"
)


6. 文字遊戲


雖然上面已對標題的單字、語法和標點符號做了詳細的說明,但有時我們還是會碰到不按牌理出牌,不遵照規則和慣例的標題,這是因為下標題的人偶爾會玩一下文字遊戲。


他們最常玩的文字遊戲是「押頭韻」(alliteration)。請看下面有關兩支美國職棒球隊的例句:


Sad Sox
Battle Bronx Bombers


如果您大聲朗讀,您就會聽出第一個字母 S
B
的音重複出現,這就是押頭韻。下面是「今日美國報」(USA
Today
)
一則有關洛杉磯道奇隊和底特律老虎隊這兩支大聯盟冠軍球隊比賽之報導的標題:


L.A. in
huff over Detroit rough stuff


請大聲朗讀就可聽出 "huff-rough-stuff" 這幾個字是押韻的。句中
"(be) in a
huff"
是個成語,意為「發怒」,"over"
在此意為「對於」(=
about)
,而 "rough stuff"
是個慣用語,意為「粗暴的行為」(或在比賽中使用暴力)。整句的意思是「洛杉磯道奇隊對於底特律老虎隊在比賽中使用暴力怒不可遏」。
 


. 解讀導言 (lead)


1. 導言的目的


標題使用約410個字來說明一篇新聞報導的主題。導言位在標題之下;顧名思義,它是一篇報導的第一段。新聞報導有兩種導言:一為「新聞導言」(news
lead)
,又叫做「提要式導言」(summary lead),它重述主題並提供最重要的資訊和事實,它通常包含記者發稿日期和地點 (dateline --
參見下面第2項的說明)
以及一個句子 --
叫做導句 (lead
sentence)
;另一種導言叫做「激發讀者興趣的導言」(interest
lead)
,其目的是在吸引讀者的目光,讓他們產生繼續閱讀下去的興趣。interest lead
通常用於特稿 (feature
articles)
、富人情味的報導
(human
interest stories)
或社論 (editorials)


2. 發稿日期和地點 (dateline)


過去交通不發達,一則新聞從記者發稿到見報可能已經過好幾天的時間,因此在報導的開頭都會有所謂的 dateline,即記者發稿的日期和地點。然而,現今科學昌明,科技高度發展,新聞傳播早已進入衛星時代,因此現在一則新聞即使從地球某一端發稿到地球另一端見報,往往都不會超過一天的時間。所以,大多數報紙現在都不會刊出完整的
dateline;它們只刊出記者發稿的城市名稱
--
字母全部大寫 (若其後還有國名,則國名僅第一個字母大寫,其餘字母小寫)。新聞實際發生的日期則被一致認定是讀者閱報的前一天。目前僅剩幾家報紙仍採用傳統的 dateline,亦即發稿日期和地點均刊出。不過,美聯社(AP)、法新社 (AFP)
和路透社 (Reuters)
等國際知名通訊社還是會標示完整的 dateline


有些新聞報導完全沒有發稿日期和地點。這有三個原因:第一.
這些報導是在總社撰稿;第二.
事件並非僅發生在單一城市,或該報記者在好幾個城市做綜合報導;第三.
該報導比較沒有時間性和地點性,如週日版的特稿。


3. 語法結構


新聞記者都知道有些讀者只看標題和導言。所以,大多數的提要式導言都是冗長的敘述,由兩個或多個子句
(clauses)
所構成;而激發讀者興趣的導言可能是冗長的敘述,也可能是簡短的敘述,或是問句。


根據對從英美5家報紙所挑選出來的50個導句所做的分析,僅少數導句只含一個子句。記者通常需要複句
(complex
sentences)
才能呈現他們的資訊所以,大多數導言都含有一個或兩個附屬或從屬子句英國「泰晤士報」(The Times)
的記者最常在導句中使用一個以上的附屬子句。對於子句和句子種類還不是很瞭解的讀者可參考「文法寫作指南」的子句句子結合的技巧


大部分的導言都把主要子句放在最前面,好讓讀者一眼就能找到主要主詞(通常是人) 動詞


在新聞寫作中,最常用的附屬字是形容詞子句或稱關係子句中的關係代名詞 whothat前者只能用來指人,後者可以指人或指事物,而另一個關代 which
則僅能指事物。that
也可以當附屬連接詞,引導名詞子句當主動詞的受詞。在報紙的新聞報導中,"...said that"
"...reported that"
相當常見。例如:


PANMUNJOM,
Korea - North and South Korea
yesterday
announced
that the prime ministers of the two countries
will meet....


這個
that
可以省略,尤其是在 "said" 之後。

因此,上面的例句可以寫成

"North and South Korea said the prime ministers of the two countries will meet...."

這句的主要子句為
"North and South Korea said"

而附屬子句為
"(that) the prime ministers of the two countries will meet...."

然而,在許多情況中,主要子句是放在附屬子句的後面

例如:


NEW YORK -
By 2010, 1 in 9 children admitted to USA hospitals may have AIDS, an expert
predicts.


當句子是以附屬子句做開頭時,附屬連接詞 that
一定要省略。再看一例:


WASHINGTON
- Personal income and spending rose a strong 0.9 percent in December, the
government said yesterday....


這樣的句子是把要強調的事件放在開頭首要的位置,而把被認為比較不重要的事件陳述者或消息來源放在後面次要的地方。


標題中出現的名稱會在導句中加以說明。有時這項說明只是一個緊鄰該名稱的名詞片語而已,如下面的導句:

MOSCOW,
Wednesday, April 11 - Vladimir Putin,
the
Russian leader
, was shown on national
television Tuesday night....


這個名詞片語在文法中叫做同位語 (appositive)

同位語的前後可使用逗點或破折號 (dash)來與句子其他部分隔開,成為插入語句。

這一插入語句也可以是關係子句的形式
-- "Vladimir Putin, who is the Russian
leader
, was shown...." --
但使用同位語可以省字,也就是節省空間。

許多導句至少都還有另一個附屬子句,

但太多的子句往往造成閱讀上的困難或意思上的混淆。


有些記者使用分詞片語 (participial phrases) 來敘述或修飾人或事物。

分詞片語包括現在分詞和過去分詞片語

它們看起來好像主動態或被動態動詞的一部份,

但它們不具主動詞的功能。分詞片語緊跟在它們所修飾的名詞
(通常為主詞)之後。例如:


TOULOUSE, France, July 19 (AP) -

A train moving at 30 miles an hour hit another train
stopped with mechanical problems today and 15 people were reported wounded.


在上例中,

"moving at 30 miles an hour"


"stopped with mechanical problems"

分別為現在分詞 (moving)
與過去分詞 (stopped) 片語。


其實,不管是同位語還是分詞片語,它們都是關係子句,即形容詞子句的減化

所以上例可以改寫或還原為
"A train
which was moving at 30
miles an hour hit another train
which
had
stopped with mechanical problems...."

有些報紙每個導句中往往使用一個以上的分詞片語,

但有些報紙則鮮少使用 --
後者的語法結構顯然比較簡單,因此也就比較容易閱讀。
 

Guide to Grammar and
Writing

 



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空大在做法上:循序漸次 ,對英文文法從新架構基本且實用的文法概念,來幫助與引導學生遵循 

National Open University 文法重點 Grammar Focus

次第

目錄

 

1

句子P.11

 

2

五種基本句型 P.23

 

3

片語 P.42

 

4

片語 P.42

 

5

句子的連接 P.51

 

6

句子的連接-從屬連接P.63

 

7

附屬子句P.72

 

8

形容詞子句()P.87

 

9

名詞子句 P.98

 

10

副詞子句 P.111

 

11

主動語態與被動語態P.124

 

12

分詞作形容詞 P.137

1 2

13

同位語 P.154

 

14

辨認名詞子句、形容詞子句與副詞子句 P.167

 

15

對等連接詞前後的對稱(and為例)P.186

 

16

It 作虛主詞 P.196(練習1~16)

 

17

句子的對等連接詞與從屬連接併用 P.215

 

18

分詞片語與形容詞子句 P.224

 

19

不定詞P.223

 

20

動名詞P.234

 

21

動詞接不定詞或動名詞P.251

 

22

句子的擴大P.262

 

23

形容詞子句()P.269

 

24

對等連接的前後對稱()P.281

 

25

分詞結構代替副詞子句 P.290

 

26

分詞結構代替對等子句P.300

 

27

分詞結構P.313

 

28

綜合練習(子句;主要子句)P.325

 

29

綜合練習(指出句子的主要結構)p.338

 

30

綜合練習(指出句子的主要子句)p.348

 

31

綜合練習(主動語態、被動語態)p.362

 

32

綜合練習(動詞的形式;不定詞或動名詞)p.377

 

33

綜合練習(名詞子句、副詞子句、形容詞子句)p.391

 

34

綜合練習(英翻中)p.405

 

35

 

 

36

 

 

 

 

 

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edu[1]  

 

 

Wen-Xiong /92商學系學士/National Open University

Nytimes

http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2011/01/30/world/middleeast/20110130EGYPT-2.html

Sixth Day of Protests

  • Several hours after nightfall, Mohamed ElBaradei, the Egyptian opposition figure and Nobel Prize winner, arrived in Tahrir Square, the center of the protests, and addressed the crowd through a bullhorn.

  • We are beginning a new era in Egypt,” he said. “What we have begun cannot be reversed."

addressed ...致詞,...發表演說

 

 

Wen-Xiong /商學系/National Open University

Nytimes

可以分成六段此處是依據逗點來分

1> Several hours //after nightfall,

2>Mohamed ElBaradei,

3> (the Egyptian opposition figure) and (Nobel Prize winner),

4>arrived //in Tahrir Square,

5> the center of the protests,

6> and addressed the crowd //through a bullhorn.

刪掉1,3,5 之後看看剩下些甚麼

主結構 是2,4,6 Mohamed ElBaradei., …. arrived …..,and addressed........

addressed ...致詞,...發表演說

1> “We are beginning a new era //in Egypt,”

2> he said.

3> “What we have begun cannot be reversed.”

文法

簡單現在式、現在完成式( 中文已經)

中文大意

抗議的第六天(英文是說第 6天的抗議Sixth Day of Protests)

入夜後的幾個小時,埃及的反對派人物也是諾貝爾獎獲獎者穆罕默德巴拉迪,抵達抗議中心塔利爾廣場,他透過擴音器向人群發表演說。

他說,在埃及我們現在開始了一個新的紀元

我們已經開始了不能被反轉回頭

學習結果證明他的閱讀方法可行

分段的方式是可行且是very fast

 

 

 

Wen-Xiong /商學系/National Open University

BBC News

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12331520

標題Thousands gather at Egypt protest

1 February 2011

副標題

Egyptian protesters are holding a massive rally in the capital, Cairo, as they step up their efforts

to force President Hosni Mubarak from power.

句子的架構

Egyptian protesters are holding (A) //in (B), (C),

as they step up(D) //to force (E) //from (F).

依據陳大夫的閱讀方法

最後只剩下Egyptian protesters are holding.........

  • 不定詞片語to V......from....

to force President Hosni Mubarak from power.

目的迫使某人....下台

  • 副詞子句as …..... power.

as引導副詞子句修飾主要子句的動詞 are holding

中文大意

在埃及聚集成千的示威民眾

在埃及首都開羅示威群眾正在舉行大規模集會,正當他們加緊努力迫使總統胡斯尼穆巴拉克離開職位(下台)

我的學習結果證明陳達武副教授在教育廣播電上所說的以及在空大「英文文選」課文裡所寫的閱讀方法是「可行」,分段的方式的確可行且very fast

因此判定是值得學習的英文閱讀方法,此方法對增進或改善英文閱讀會是一個閱讀利器。

 



 

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 2011/2/7

陳達武在今晚(08~09)的教育廣播節目「英文閱讀方法(五)」最後五分鐘中提到.....

他如何訓練急著要出國留學的一位男學生,他的背景是高職日文系,當完兵,

因為女朋友出國留學,因此想跟進。

陳達武的上課方式,一周兩次

教材:TIME

上課方式:

  1.不准查字典

  2.看不懂就猜

  3.有問才答,不講課(不提問則不講課)

結果

3周後他問這位全心準備留學的學生,你看懂幾成?

學生的回答是約五成。

 

空中大學在即將開課的共同科「英文文選」三學分

課本編撰是陳達武擔任總召集人,這是空大自編的一本教材,共36

民國89年出版,92年已達五刷

 

適合高中程度畢業想進修的社會人士

 

陳達武副教授提出閱讀英文簡捷且明確的四步驟來訓練學生,企圖避開繁瑣的文法規則,但在每課課文的後面則有次序的列出應該也需要認識和學習的文法觀念來增加對英文句子的理解,不過並不太強調或拿來卡住或考同學,反而認為大量閱讀和密集接觸和簡單的學習方法,讀多讀久了自然惑然而釋,他強調並非每一個單字都必須知道它的意思,不懂的單字有時跳過並不會影響文意的了解,有時反而會減輕閱讀的壓力。

陳達武的法寶說穿了不就是以下這四個步驟,但前題是必須勤做練習!

這四個步驟也是解決在學習英語路上碰到障礙時想尋找另一種途徑的有效因應之道,請看仔細了....,若你忽略掉這些核心,就表示沒有學到這位博士的絕活!

 

Step1 分段(從介係詞片語,副詞,形容詞,標點符號如逗點,破折號--..)

Step2 確認連接詞(最常見的如and, but, or...)

Step3 辨識修飾語 (強調三個子句,其中最重要的形容詞子句,另外兩個

名詞子句,副詞子句)

Step4 呈現主結構 (句子裡的主詞動詞)

 

這個訓練約需4個月至6個月,這是根據教學經驗和我自己的實際參語過程

中所得到的結論。

 

當您完成這個階段的密集接觸和訓練(實際的做練習,和大量時間練習)

緊接著進入第二階段則是直接閱讀紐約時報NyTimes或華盛頓郵報來閱讀,

依據他的說法,這是道地的美國報紙,撰寫的人在使用文字上都有一定的素質

他同時表示,一般人常犯的謬誤,認為學好英文得事先背好單字和文法才是最重要的,

他對以上的論調頗不以為然,指出閱讀英文應該是在摸索文意中前進,是邊學邊做的功夫.....

他對於逐字、逐句的翻譯英文則認為那是初學英文暫時性的措施,而非一種常態學習英文的方式

常模 則是透過大量閱讀英語以及密集接觸來學習

根據我過去的面授經驗,非空大英文教師在面授時幾乎是不談或很少談這四個步驟,多數都只是頂著大學英文教師的光環來授課拿鐘點費!似乎對他的四步驟不太領情卻又拿不出像樣的教學策略來教導學生,最終還是回到老路子上頭盤旋。

若要解決上述那樣的困境,我看只有上學校的「學習如何學習」的討論區去提出問題才有可能解決問題。網路學習改變了傳統教室裡的授課方式,空大的學弟妹們必須迅速適應這些巨大的傳授知識改變並積極參與提問。

總之,我認為空中大學是一個能自我要求與鞭策的學習地方,積極度不夠的人勸您儘早退費走人,特別是「英文文選」這門課。同時我也必須說並非每個空大老師都具備古道熱腸,因此得多打聽有哪幾位教師真正的樂意將所學傾囊相授或花盡心力在訓練上,而不是一味只會討好學生來保持他的聲譽、所謂的要分給分作業隨你變/便的教師,這樣的教師只是扼殺師道或學道,但總是會聽到他們說出一些富麗堂皇且冠冕的理由,還提醒您得「尊師重道」,天啊!把倫理道德當成擋箭牌和令箭。

我是在這樣的情況下,在92學年在不認識的學姊推介下才找到紀靜芬,這位學姊看到我在老路上用盡時間和精力每天勤跑當時候位在華視視聽中心的空大台北中心圖書館,顯然讓她看到我遇到困境,所以樂心且主動地提及適應之道。

結果如是我聞,而且她還加碼演出,這印驗的一句話,「自助天助」、皇天不負苦心人。

 

 

 

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參考資料來源:

http://hannahece.blogspot.com/2007/08/vygotsky.html

http://www.huayuworld.org/?page_id=132&wpforumaction=viewtopic&t=185

 

 

維高斯基(Vygotsky)理論

維高斯基(Vygotsky )提出相關的教學策略包括:

(1)鷹架 (2)近端發展區以及 (3)交互教學等主要概念。

Vygotsky的認知發展的觀點來看,其在教學上的應用有二個方向:

一是教學的最佳效果,發生在「近端發展區」,

傳統的教學強調教學要配合學生的實際能力,進行符合學生認知能力的教學,卻不強調依學生潛能發展的教學設計。

因此,他主張將學生置於「接近全知而又不能知」的近端發展區域中,在教師協助下,學習新的知識,啟發新的思考,也就是說學生在教師「助一臂之力」的情況下,其潛在的能力得以充分展現,因此教學最理想的效果,是在近端發展區能得到最充分的發展。

 

近端發展區是維高斯基(Vygotsky )認知發展中最重要的概念,

他認為個體獨立解決問題的實際發展層次,與他如果透過成人的輔助或與更有經驗者互動之下潛在發展層次,兩者之間存有一段距離。

亦即,學習者的認知發展潛能,如果只靠自己努力,只能獲得有限的發展,

但是,如果得到較有知識者(或專業領域裡),像同儕、家教或老師的指導,則能達到超越性的發展。

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Chapter 6

Never too Late for Romance

 

My favorite story about romance is a humorous one that happened at a restaurant in Taipei.

The occasion was a “Teachers’ Thank You Dinner” with a large group of graduating seniors at my university.

After the meal, a student mistress of ceremonies invited each professor to say a few words.

A very zealous student, she was affixing adjectives before our names as she invited us to come to the microphone.

The pleasant Professor Chen,” she would say, or “ The impressive Professor Lin,” and so on.When my turn came, she used words for me that almost knocked me off my chair in surprise.And now please welcome the pure and romantic Professor Baucer.”Her words made me feel uneasy, and as I stood and looked out at 130 faces, my throat felt like dry sandpaper.

Thank you for your introduction, but I must say, that is, I-“ I groped for something to say. Then an idea came to me.

I may be a little romantic sometimes, but I’m sorry to have to tell you that I am not pure.”

This remark sent laughter rolling over the crowd, and gave me a chance to relax for a few seconds.

I then spoke of the glories of teaching these students, and of how much I would miss them. When I was young, my mother had a saying I still treasure. She’d say ,” It’s better late than never.”

Back in my home country St. Valentine’s Day is an important holiday.I think many of us may have missed doing anything special on that day. That doesn’t really matter, because the topic associated with St. Valentine is romance, and romance is not confined to a single day of the year. If you happened to have missed St. Valentine’s Day this year, you still have a chance.

As my mother used to say, “ It’s better late than never.!”

  

There is a fine English newspaper called the “ International Herald Tribune.”I may stop reading it because that paper really let me down this year on St. Valentine’s day!

Can you believe that on February 14th, the Tribune did not publish a single reference to romance, or even bother to mention the name of St. Valentine?The paper did run an article that day, however, by a writer named Nicholas D. Kristof.

He focused on marriage in Japan, but his words struck me because he talked of a marriage may lack romance.

The author wrote about a Japanese woman in her 70s who was married for more than forty years.

Ah, I thought to myself, since today is St. Valentine’s Day , and she’s been married all those years, she’ll be able to tell me a lot about romance. But the lady in the article said in all her years of marriage, her husband had never told her he liked her, never complimented her cooking, never said the words “ thank you” to her, never held her hand, never given her a present, never called her by name, never showed her affection in any way. 

The most eye-catching detail in this anecdote is probably the use of the word “ never,” which occurs seven times, always in relation to the lack of acts of tenderness or romance.

Have you ever asked yourself what causes more hurt in people’s lives-words that are spoken, or words that are held back and buried in silence?

I believe we may hurt others more by the words we do not say than by the words we do say.

There is a time and a place to be silent of course, but there are also moments when silence kills.

I know I am only a Catholic priest (a ‘shen-fu”) , and without a wife or “ romantic other,” people may feel I know nothing about love. But I know people, and I know the tears and pain that silence can cause in relationships.

The story of that 70-year-old woman in Japan should stir reflection.

Does it matter that the woman is Japanese?

I think nationality in itself has little to do with communication of care or love for another person.

It might be true that some cultures express feelings in words or physical gestures more readily than others, as for example by offering hugs or smiles in public, but that doesn’t mean a culture has no way to show emotion or tenderness.

Many Chinese students have told me their parents rarely or never say to them, “ I love you,” but they show their love in different ways.

A mother might make special food for a student to take to school to eat, for example.

Or she may say,” Be sure to use an extra blanket at night so you don’t catch a cold,” or “ Study hard, but be sure to relax, too.”

In these cases the content of the words actually means tenderness and concern.

Psychologists often find that people may know on the level of ideas that someone loves them, but not feel that love deep inside their emotions.

For reasons usually linked to childhood, a person may grow up not believing anyone really cares about their happiness or sadness.

That is why wise counselors often urge parents to express their tenderness for their children in words.

Is it true that human beings occasionally need to hear or see a word from the people who matter the most to them in life?

I use the word “see” because words need not always be spoken.

We all “say” our words in different ways.

The problem is if we are not careful, we may let silence do too much of the talking for us, and unknowingly hurt some very beautiful people in our lives.

They may not know our feelings for them because we’ve never told them directly.

Communication with words may not be easy.

It requires an attitude of mind and a sensitivity for the feelings of the other person.

Communication also demands that we must look bravely at ourselves, for to put words to what dwells inside us is first to see and know what lives deep within us.

Rare is the person courageous enough to study and embrace his or her own heart.

Yet we need such courage to let someone know how much we love them. 

My Mom used to say, “It’s better late than never.”

Perhaps it isn’t yet too late to talk with someone we care about.

It’s never too late for just a bit of romance.

 

試做與延伸讀NyTimes  ( )

Chapter 6  

Never too Late for Romance

My favorite story /about romance is a humorous one //that happened /at a restaurant /in Taipei.

The occasion was a “Teachers’ Thank You Dinner” /with a large group /of graduating seniors /at my university.

After the meal, a student mistress /of ceremonies invited each professor /to say a few words.

飯後會場女主持人邀請每位教授講幾句話

A very zealous student, /she was affixing adjectives/ before our names /as she invited us /to come /to the microphone.

The pleasant Professor Chen,” she would say, /or “ The impressive Professor Lin,” /and so on.

When my turn came, /she used words /for me (that almost knocked me off my chair /in surprise).

And now please welcome (“ the pure) and (romantic Professor Baucer.)”

[ Her words made me feel uneasy], /and [as I (stood) and (looked out /at 130 faces),/ my throat felt /like dry sandpaper].

[Thank you /for your introduction], but [I must say, /that is, I-“ I groped /for something /to say”]. Then an idea came to me].

{I may be a little romantic sometimes}, but {I’m sorry /to have /to tell you [that I am not pure]}.

This remark (sent laughter rolling /over the crowd), and (gave me a chance /to relax /for a few seconds).

I then spoke of the glories [of teaching these students], and [of how much (I would miss them)].

When I was young, my mother had a saying [I still treasure]. She’d say ,“ It’s better late than never.”

Back in my home country St. Valentine’s Day is an important holiday.

I think [many of us /may have missed doing anything special /on that day].

[That doesn’t really matter, //because the topic associated /with St. Valentine is romance], and [romance is not confined /to a single day /of the year].

If you happened /to have missed St. Valentine’s Day this year, you still have a chance.

As my mother used to say, “ It’s better late than never.!”

There is a fine English newspaper //called the “ International Herald Tribune.”(過去分詞片語修是前面的newspaper )

I may stop reading it //because that paper really let me down this year /on St. Valentine’s day!

Can you believe [that on February 14th, //the Tribune did not [publish a single reference /to romance], or [even bother /to mention the name /of St. Valentine]?

The paper did run an article that day, /however, //by a writer named Nicholas D. Kristof.

 

[He focused on marriage /in Japan],but [ his words struck me //because he talked of a marriage may lack romance].

The author wrote /about a Japanese woman /in her 70s (who was married /for more than forty years).

Ah, I thought to myself, [since today is St. Valentine’s Day] , and [shes been married all those years, //shell be able /to tell me a lot /about romance].

But the lady /in the article said /in all her years /of marriage, [/her husband had never told her [he liked her], never complimented her cooking, never said the words “ thank you” /to her, never held her hand, never given her a present, never called her by name, never showed her affection /in any way.]

 

The most eye-catching detail /in this anecdote/ is probably the use /of the word “ never,” //which occurs seven times,// always /in relation /to the lack of acts /of (tenderness) or (romance).

Have you ever asked yourself [what causes more hurt /in people’s lives-words (that are (spoken), or (words) [that are held back and buried /in silence]?

I believe [we may hurt others more /by the words (we do not say than /by the words (we do say)].

[There is a time and a place /to be silent of course], but [there are also moments when silence kills].

I know [I am only a Catholic priest (a ‘shen-fu”)] , and (without a wife) or “ (romantic other),” /people may feel [I know nothing about love].

But {I know people}, and {I know (the tears) and (pain) [that silence can cause /in relationships]}.

The story /of that 70-year-old woman /in Japan should stir reflection.

Does it matter //that the woman is Japanese?

I think nationality /in itself has little /to do /with communication /of (care) or (love /for another person).

 

It might be true {[that some cultures express feelings /in (words) or (physical gestures /more readily than others), //as for example /by offering (hugs) or (smiles /in public)}, but {that doesn’t mean [a culture has no way /to show (emotion) or (tenderness)]}.

{ Many Chinese students have told me //[their parents (rarely) or (never say /to them), “ I love you”,]} but {they show their love /in different ways}.

A mother might make special food /for a student /to take to school /to eat, for example.

Or she may say,{” Be sure /to use an extra blanket /at night// so you don’t catch a cold,” } or {“ Study hard, but be sure /to relax, too.”}

In these cases// the content of the words actually means (tenderness) and (concern).

Psychologists often find {that people may [know /on the level /of ideas (that someone loves them)}, but [not feel //that love deep inside their emotions]}.

 

For reasons usually linked /to childhood, a person may grow up not believing anyone really cares /about their (happiness) or (sadness).

That is [why wise counselors often urge parents /to express their tenderness /for their children /in words].

Is it true [that human beings occasionally need /to (hear) or (see a word) /from the people (who matter the most /to them /in life)?

I use the word “see” //because words need not always be spoken.

We all “say” our words /in different ways.

 

The problem is //{if we are not careful, we [may let silence do /too much /of the talking /for us], and [unknowingly hurt some very beautiful people /in our lives]}.

 

They may not know our feelings /for them //because we’ve never told them directly.

Communication /with words /may not be easy.

It requires an attitude /of mind and a sensitivity /for the feelings /of the other person.

Communication also demands [that we must look bravely /at ourselves, //for /to put words /to (what dwells inside us is first) /to (see) and (know) //what lives deep within us].

***Communication also demands {that we must (look ....)and (know......)}(需要再推敲...)

Rare is the person courageous enough /to (study) and (embrace (his) or (her own heart)).

Yet we need such courage /to let [someone know how much (we love them)].

My Mom used to say, “It’s better late than never.”

Perhaps it isn’t yet too late /to talk /with someone (we care about).

It’s never too late /for just a bit of romance.

我媽習慣說,遲到/晚到 總比沒到好

跟我們關心的人說點浪漫的話語是不會太慢了

延伸閱讀NyTime,

當能力達到時,我覺得就可以開始進行

沒道理要等到整個課程結束後再來,我覺得這要自我要求和勇氣,也期望陳博士在下學期在出第一次作業時,請納入我的建議進去,總得要提升,事實上,在上網率普遍下,就應當嘗試一下。

因為方法相同

延伸閱讀

New North Korean Leader Meets South Koreans and Assumes Leadership of Party

第一段

SEOUL, South Korea — Kim Jong-un, the new leader of North Korea, met Monday with a private delegation of prominent South Koreans, his first face-to-face encounter with any visitors from the estranged South since assuming the top spot a week ago when his father’s death was announced.

 

By CHOE SANG-HUN

Published: December 26, 2011

SEOUL, South Korea —

1> Kim Jong-un,

2> the new leader of North Korea,

3 > met Monday with a private delegation of prominent South Koreans,

4> his first face-to-face encounter /with any visitors /from the estranged South

5> since assuming the top spot a week ago

6> when his father’s death was announced.

 

主結構第一段

1> Kim Jong-un, (金正恩)

3 > met.............,

紐約時報對亞洲人士的稱呼是用拼音法(音譯): Kim Jong-un

 

#2修飾(補充說明)#1

#4修飾(補充說明)#1#3

#5#6修飾(補充說明為什麼是由他接班的時間點補述)

Kim Jong-un(A),.......met with (B)

 

第二段

The meeting, scrutinized for any hint of Mr. Kims intentions toward South Korea, came as the official North Korean news media announced he had been appointed to the top post of the ruling party, another step in what appeared to be a choreographed sequence of events meant to show that he was assuming all the key positions held by his father, Kim Jong-il, the longtime ruler of the isolated, nuclear-armed North.

 

1>The meeting,

2>scrutinized /for any hint /of Mr. Kims intentions toward South Korea,

3> came //as the official North Korean news media announced

he had been appointed /to the top post /of the ruling party,

 

4>another step /in what appeared /to be a choreographed sequence /of events meant

/to show /that he was assuming all the key positions held by his father,

5>Kim Jong-il, the longtime ruler /of the isolated,

6>nuclear-armed North.

 

第三段

South Korea had said it would send no official mourners to Kim Jong-ils funeral, which angered North Korea as a sign of disrespect.

But Kim Jong-uns meeting with the private delegation of mourners,

which included the former first lady of South Korea and a top businesswoman, appeared to be cordial.

 

 

文章標籤

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反斜線</>? 它是用來 做<分段> 的,而分段的時機是在遇到介係詞、標點符號

Chapter 3

A Lesson on Privacy

Mr. Chen and Miss Wei―two Chinese students studying /in America―are invited /to attend a wedding ceremony /for an American couple's daughter. Since they all are /in a tight financial situation, they plan /to buy a gift /for the bride together.

So, they meet and have a little discussion about.

The couple’s names are (Steve) and (Ann), and their daughter’s name is Julia. Neither Steve nor Ann is Julia’s true parent.

Julia is Steve’s first wife’s daughter /from her first marriage. Julia [ came /to Steve’s home //when her mother married Steve], but [stayed /with Steve //when her mother broke up /with Steve].

Chen: Since we are the guests /of (Steve) and (Ann), I ‘d suggest [we buy a gift /for the bride together].

Wei: Indeed. Do you know [that almost all wedding gifts are /for the brides]?

I believe [that’s why Americans have bridal showers and not showers /for the bridegroom].

Chen :I see. I guess[ I have made the right suggestion /for the wrong reason].

So, what kind of gift /would you suggest?

Wei: Do you have any idea?

Chen: Me? I don’t have a clue /about picking a gift /for the bride.

Whatever you say is O.K. with me.

Wei: O.K. But first we need /to decide /on the budget.

(What kind /of price range) are (we talking about)?

Chen: How about /around 60 US dollars?

Wei: O.K.

Chen: I know [this is much higher than (what we generally would do)].

But considering the way Steve and Ann have treated us, I think [we should give Julia a really good gift].

Wei: Yeah, especially considering the embarrassment (your big mouth caused).

Chen: How could I know? I have never heard /of anything like this. Had you?

Wei: No. Actually I also assumed [that they are Julia’s biological parents //when I heard them /talking about “ our daughter”].

Chen: This really opened my eyes. When we hear people //talking about parents and children //we immediately assume [they are talking about biological parents and children].

Wei: It seems [that our idea /of (parents) or (children) is closely associated /with bloodline].

Theirs is a pretty special case.

Chen: Yeah. Who could have imagined [that (Steve) and (Ann) love Julia /so much //they simply take her /as their “ daughter”, //despite the fact [that Julia is not biologically /(related /to any one /of them) whatsoever].

Wei: True! Generally only the biological or legal parents are called: Dad or Mom. At least //that’s [what I thought].

Chen: Talking about a special case. In our culture //when a divorced person marries again, //(his)or ( her new other  half)generally do not call the person’s child //from previous marriage: (my son) or (my daughter).

And the child rarely calls the new (husband) or (wife): (my dad) or (my mom).

Wei: Just look at the way (Steve takes care of Julia),/ no one would ever doubt //if she is not his biological daughter.

Chen: neither would anyone doubt the relationship //between (Ann) and (Julia) /if you listen /to the way (Ann chats /with Julia).

Wei: Yeah. On appearance, they do look /like a perfectly happy family. I wish [I would have a family /like this one].

Chen: You mean [you also are going /to marry someone (who already has children /from his previous marriage)]?

Wei: No, I didn’t mean that part.

Chen: Frankly speaking, I seriously doubt /if I could ever have this kind /of love/ if my future wife also has children /from her previous marriage. Could you?

Wei: I…I really don’t know. This is a tough one. I have never expected this kind /of marriage, /to begin with.

Chen: Me too. We were all raised /to expect a very typical marriage. In this sense, our idea /of parental love is strictly limited /to our own biological children.

Wei: Isn’t this [what we call: a normal family]? Then, what does (Steve) and (Ann’s family) make? Tell me, if you were /in Steve’s shoes, will you treat Julia/ as your very own?

Chen: It will be very hard, to be frank. It will be even harder /after her mother and I were separated. For what?

Wei: Yeah, I know [what you meant]. Isn’t that even more amazing?

Chen : You can say that again.

What would you do /if you were in my shoes?

What does Steve and Ann’s family make?

Wei: Fortunately they did not take your questions too personally. And Ann was kind enough /to explain /to us their wonderful story.

Chen: Why didn’t you do something t/o bail me out?

Wei: me? I was startled too. Before I was able /to think /of anything /to say //you were at it again.

Chen: Me and my big mouth.

Wei: At least we learned a valuable lesson /about love and privacy.

Chen: Tell me about it.

Wei: So now //I guess [you will know (what to do /in the wedding reception)].

Chen: Yeah, yeah. I will put a zipper /on my mouth.

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本人建議先在word做完後,再複製貼到部落格較保險

 

延伸閱讀

CNN 安全駕駛,美法律趨嚴 2011.12.29

By Josh Levs, CNN
And more states are joining a nationwide movement /for tougher laws /against distracted driving. Nevada will prohibit all drivers /from (texting) and (using handheld devices), the National Conference /of State Legislatures says. North Dakota is (banning drivers /under age 18/ from using cell phones /in their cars) and (barring all drivers /from texting).

全國州議會會議說

distracted driving 分心駕駛;發瘋駕駛

texting 發短信;發簡訊

handheld devices手持裝置

國立空中大學 <英文文選>視聽

國立空中大學 版權所有 Copyright © 2010 National Open University All Rights Reserved

試做  Chapter 2

For Your Laughter (II) -Crazy Drivers (II) 

 

What do you normally do when driving? Are your hands always on the wheel?

Or do you take care of some personal business while in the car?

Here are a few stories of busy drivers:  

當你在開車時,正常情況下你都在做甚麼?你的雙手有隨時在方向盤上或是你在車上做個人的事呢? 

Mind Your Own Business (I)

Mind your own business 專心開你的車少管閒事 

A Virginia woman was (convicted //of improper driving) and (fined $35 dollars).

During a rainy, //rush-hour traffic in Feb. 1998, //a woman was stopped //by the highway patrol //for applying a makeup //while driving.

Trooper Thomas reported {that he saw [the woman (holding the steering wheel //with her hand) and (putting /on makeup //with her right hand), looking //in the rearview mirror /at the same time]}.

The woman appealed her case but was rejected,// on the ground (that she displayed a wanton or willful disregard //for the safety //of others).

The trooper had a right //to pull this person over,” //The judge said.

He doesn’t have to wait //until an accident happens.”

Her defense attorney had argued [that there is no state law prohibiting (using a cell phone), (reading), or (applying makeup //while driving)].

I don’t like [people (using cell phones), (applying makeup), (eating) or whatever],// “ her attorney argue,// “ but [that is not reckless driving.”]

The judge (dropped the charge /of reckless driving), but (convicted the woman /of a lesser charge /of improper driving).

In addition to the $35 dollars fine, //she will be penalized three points /of her driver’s license.

 

Mind Your Own Business (II)

The Pennzoil oil company conducted an informal survey /of 15,000 respondents //about if they had ever done a variety /of activities //while being stuck /in traffic.

Apparently many /of them made the best /of the time /in traffic.

Not counting (talking-to oneself) or (to others-the most popular time-killer /in traffic) is reading-42% /reported doing so.

About 25% admitted changing clothes.

Forty-six percent /of women respondents admitted applying makeup /behind the wheel.

Seventeen percent /of men acknowledged tying their ties.

Examined carefully, //the study found //that older people tend /to concentrate more /on the driving.

Respondents aged 56 or above reported doing fewer extracurricular activities.

Drivers , //which /of the extracurricular activities mentioned //about you have not tried?

 

Mind Your Own Business (III)

The following is a true story, told by a woman in Florida:

I once saw a bizarre sight. Not the typical guy reading the newspaper or the school mom dressing her six-year-old all //while doing 65 //in a 55 zone and changing lanes.

It was a woman //with-I kid you not-a coffee cup /in her left hand and an eyelash curler /in his right hand.

She was curling her eyelashes /in the rearview mirror //as she changed two lanes /in bumper-to-bumper,// 65 mph traffic.

She made it without a scratch, //while I got rear-ended /in my distraction.

 

Mind Your Own Business (IV)

It was a raining Sunday evening near Seattle. The traffic was heavy, //because many people were driving home /from their weekend activities. There was one car swerving back and forth /in the lane.

 

 

A curious driver noticed something scary //about the female driver /of the car.

[She was holding a paperback book up, //while driving], //so that [the headlights /from the truck /behind her could illuminate the pages (she was reading)]. She was reading //while driving /at night /in the rain.

 

Maybe she was very anxious /to learn something /from the book. Not rain, not heavy traffic, nothing could stop her.

 

Mind Your Own Business (V)

I saw this /with my own eyes /in December of 1990.

 

My friend and I were driving near Orlando, //Florida /on a busy weekend evening.

The traffic was heavy-it is Orlando,// home /of Disney’s magic Kingdom and the Mecca //for millions /of kids //around the world. 

As I was doing 65 /on a 55 mile zone,// a car passed me /by /to my right. It swung in and out /of different lanes, //with varied speeds.

I was a little curious, //because the driver drove /with his interior light on.

 

I followed him and came /to his side.

We saw [the man was writing /while driving].

We could see //both his hands were //on top /of the wheel, //with his right hand //holding a pen.

 

Sometimes he would (speed up) and (weave in and out /of different lanes).

Then, he would slow down and stay in his lane /for a while.

I followed him /for //about twenty minutes and finally lost him.

 

Chapter 1

 

Chapter 1 For Your Laughter ( I ) -- Crazy Drivers ( I )

示範\Wen Xiong \空中大學(92)商學系學士

<更新1212_09:04>

P>若在課本練習用下列方式就很明白了不需上色(除非某個句子對你特別要緊需要用螢光筆),在網路用色是一眼就能輕易辨識。

P>較多的分段練習可以從歷屆考題中獲得更多的訊息及校方"標準答案",若你覺得本部落格分類<空大英文文選>的討論資源就足夠,就請盡情享用。

Step1分段要點是從標點符號或其他標號介系詞下手

> On October 13 1993, // a British woman tried //to park her car into a curbside space,// measured //at 19.36m,// equivalent //to three standard parking spaces.

 

> She (started the maneuver //at 11.15 a.m.) and (successfully parked her car //within three feet //of the pavement), //(eight hours) and (fourteen minutes later).

 

Chapter 1

For Your Laughter ( I ) -- Crazy Drivers ( I )

 

國立空中大學 版權所有 Copyright © 2010 National Open University All Rights Reserved

 

For Your Laughter(1) -Crazy Driver(I)

The Following stories of crazy drivers are reportedly //to be true. Be careful.

下列瘋狂駕駛的故事據說是真實的故事,小心駕駛

 

Parking a Car

On October 13 1993,// a British woman tried //to park her car //into a curbside space,// measured at 19.36m,// equivalent //to three standard parking spaces.

She [started the maneuver at 11.15 a.m.] and [successfully parked her car //within three feet //of the pavement],// (eight hours) and (fourteen minutes later).

There were a few misfortunes,// of course,// considering the long duration //of such a maneuver.

The casualties included: damages //to (the bumpers) and (wings //of her own car) and (two cars happened //to sit near by), (shop frontage), and yes, (two lampposts).

 

On April 2, 1987, //a British doctor drove a Saab 900, //with her hand brake on, //for 313 miles (500 kilometers).

Only two miles into her journey// the doctor smelled something burning.

But she pressed on,// with smoke billowing //from the rear wheels.

In addition, //[the right turn signal was flashing] and [the choke was fully out //during the whole journey].

 

Know Thy Car

An elderly woman went //for a shopping //in a mall.

Upon returning to the parking lot, she found four males //sitting in her car.

She (dropped her shopping bags) and (drew a handgun //from her purse).

She [raised her gun] and [screamed //at the top //of her voice].

Do you see [what I am holding //in my hand]? I know [how to shoot]. Now,// you get out //of my car, //punks! The four men didn’t wait around //for a second instruction. They (got out) and (ran //like hell).

The lady then (packed her gun),// (loaded her shopping bags //into the trunk) and (got into the driver’s seat).

But she just could not start the car: her key wouldn’t fit into the ignition.

Finally she found out [that her own car was parked(four) or (five spaces away), //which was identical //to this one. She (loaded her bags //into her car) and (drove //to the police station).

Inside the police station, four pale white males were reporting a car-jacking //by a mad elderly white woman. The police sergeant nearly tore himself //in two //with laughter.(12_14更正後males)

No charges were filed.

 

Are You Blind (I)

Two Tennessee people decide //to go //for a ride //after [they were drunk late //in the night].

The blind person asked the owner //of the BMW //to let him drive it,// because , //he figured, /he knew his own road well enough //to drive //with his friend’s help.

So they (put the top //of the BMW convertible down) and (went for a spin //in the rain).

Spin (they did).

The BMW (missed a sharp left curve) and (smashed into a tree).

[The driver, blind //since age six, //broke his arm] and [the owner had a shattered leg].

Both were fined //for driving under influence. The driver later told the Tennessee Highway Patrol troopers //to ‘ never let a blind drive.”

 

Are You Blind (II)

A senior citizen was driving home //after work //when his cell phone rang.

It was his wife //on the phone.

She said,” Listen,” Listen, I just heard on the TV //[that there was acar //driving the wrong way //on the interstate highway]. You be careful.”

The elderly man answered, //It’s not just one car, dear,// it’s hundreds!”

 

Are You Blind (III)

Not too long ago, //the state of Georgia produced a tape //for blind people.

It is the audio version //of a book published //by the Dept. of Transportation //of the state //of Georgia.

The title of the book-//The Georgia motorcycle operators’ manual.

[What do you think]is the purpose //of this audio tape?

 

I Dare You ( Speed Enforcement, Mongolia-Style)

In Mongolia,// the police invented a creative way //to stop speeding.

When a driver is speeding,// sirens along the main street will go off.

(Customers) or (pedestrians) //along the street {will just pick up (old boxes) and (furniture),// set specifically //by (the shopkeepers) and (caf owners)}, and {throw them //at (the offending driver) and (his passengers)}.

They will eventually be (pulled //from the vehicle) and (covered //in camel dung).

For nine years no one has ever tried speeding again.

過去九年來再也沒有駕駛人敢嘗試超速

Speeding Ticket of a Different Kind

不同種類的速度罰單。Speeding ticket 超速罰單

Sometime in 1998,// a retired British senior citizen lost his license //for driving too slowly //on a country road.

Police saw Douglas Illingworth, //aged 83, //traveling //at 1 mph //with a long trail //of cars behind him //on the A61 country road, //near the city //of Barnsley.

Barnsley magistrates (barred him //from driving //for a year), //(gave him a conditional discharge) and (ordered //to take an eye test).

 

Are You Insured?

Sometime ago //in St. Louis, a car hit a bus //carrying 5 passengers.

By the time //the police arrived //on the scene, there were 14 //more people //on the bus,// all complaining //about (whiplash injuries) and (back pain).

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 Chapter 5

Never Too Late For Romance

 

Harry and Ginny are an engaged couple concerned about some friends of theirs, Mary and Sam.

They’ve known these friends for many years, and have watched their budding romance with both hope and concern.

The American holiday “ ST. Valentine’s Day” is only a few weeks away on the calendar, and talking about the topic of love and romance seems natural, so that is the topic of their conversation.

It is never too late for romance.

Harry: I got another phone call from Sam last night, and after listening to him for a whole hour, I asked if I could tell you about it.

He said it was okay. I’m hoping you can help with some advice for him.

Ginny: What’s the matter? Is it the old story about Mary being too quiet with Sam?

Harry: Actually it’s the other way around! Mary seems to be upset because Sam isn’t talking enough with her now.

Ginny: Well, that’s a change! It used to be that she was a little too quiet for him, isn’t that right?

Harry: That is right, yes. Mary would go long periods of time without saying much, and Sam used to feel he didn’t know her very well.

He felt isolated, cut off from her. He wanted to hear her talk about her emotions sometimes, wanted her to show him that he was special to her.

Ginny: But then Sam succeeded. He persuaded Mary to be more expressive, didn’t he?

Harryhe did. Well, now the problem is that Mary has gotten more expressive than Sam!

She’s complaining that Sam’s too quiet, that he doesn’t share his feelings enough. Sam is so worried he thinks they might break up.

Ginny: Well, that sounds like bad news. I know Mary, and I know Sam, and they’re both good people. It’s really sad to hear they’re having these problems.

Harry: It sure is sad. Sam’s the closest male friend I’ve ever had !

Ginny: You know, he seems to communicate well with you. He tells you about his troubles, what he’s worried about, things like that.

And you listen and give him encouragement. Why can’t he talk with Mary like that too?

Harry: I agree. He can talk fine with me, and it seems to help him to get things off his chest.

But there seems to be a problem with his talking with her.

Ginny: Well, I think if Sam can talk with you in personal ways, he ought to be able to talk with his girlfriend too!

Harry: Well, but that’s the problem. A lot of guys feel uncomfortable talking about themselves and their feelings.

Some guys feel they have to be strong all the time and that means no admitting any weakness.

If they feel failures or are unhappy, they might not want to admit it to a girl.

Ginny: Do you think that’s the problem? If it is, we’ve got to encourage Sam to open himself up and let Mary see his inside feelings more often.

Harry: Do you know what I think? Deep inside Sam probably knows just how feels about Mary, but he can’t quite get the words out. His silence is hurting their relationship.

Ginny: You’re right, Harry. Here’s what we can do. I’ll talk a little with Mary and encourage her to be more patient.

And you talk with Harry and try to get him to talk more with Mary.

Tell him that talking about his emotions for her is a way to show the magic word.

Harry: The magic word? What magic word?

Ginny: ‘Love’ , you stupid guy!

Harry: oh, yeah. I almost forgot! Maybe Sam’s not the only one who needs a little work on his magic. I guess I need it too.

Ginny: Is that a hint about St. Valentine’s Day coming up?

Harry: Saint who?

試做

Chapter 5

Never Too Late For Romance

Harry and Ginny are an engaged couple concerned /about some friends /of theirs, Mary and Sam.

They’ve known these friends /for many years, and have watched their budding romance /with both hope and concern.

The American holiday “ ST. Valentine’s Day” is /only a few weeks away /on the calendar, and talking about the topic /of love and romance seems natural, so that is the topic /of their conversation.

It is never too late /for romance.

 

Harry: I got another phone call from Sam last night, and after listening to him for a whole hour, I asked if I could tell you about it.

He said it was okay. I’m hoping you can help with some advice for him.

Ginny: What’s the matter? Is it the old story about Mary being too quiet with Sam?

Harry: Actually it’s the other way around! Mary seems to be upset because Sam isn’t talking enough with her now.

Ginny: Well, that’s a change! It used to be that she was a little too quiet for him, isn’t that right?

Harry: That is right, yes. Mary would go long periods of time without saying much, and Sam used to feel he didn’t know her very well.

He felt isolated, cut off from her. He wanted to hear her talk about her emotions sometimes, wanted her to show him that he was special to her.

Ginny: But then Sam succeeded. He persuaded Mary to be more expressive, didn’t he?

Harryhe did. Well, now the problem is that Mary has gotten more expressive than Sam!

She’s complaining that Sam’s too quiet, that he doesn’t share his feelings enough. Sam is so worried he thinks they might break up.

Ginny: Well, that sounds like bad news. I know Mary, and I know Sam, and they’re both good people. It’s really sad to hear they’re having these problems.

Harry: It sure is sad. Sam’s the closest male friend I’ve ever had ! 

Ginny: You know, he seems to communicate well with you. He tells you about his troubles, what he’s worried about, things like that.

And you listen and give him encouragement. Why can’t he talk with Mary like that too?

Harry: I agree. He can talk fine with me, and it seems to help him to get things off his chest.

But there seems to be a problem with his talking with her.

Ginny: Well, I think if Sam can talk with you in personal ways, he ought to be able to talk with his girlfriend too!

Harry: Well, but that’s the problem. A lot of guys feel uncomfortable talking about themselves and their feelings.

Some guys feel they have to be strong all the time and that means no admitting any weakness.

If they feel failures or are unhappy, they might not want to admit it to a girl.

Ginny: Do you think that’s the problem? If it is, we’ve got to encourage Sam to open himself up and let Mary see his inside feelings more often.

Harry: Do you know what I think? Deep inside Sam probably knows just how feels about Mary, but he can’t quite get the words out. His silence is hurting their relationship.

Ginny: You’re right, Harry. Here’s what we can do. I’ll talk a little with Mary and encourage her to be more patient.

And you talk with Harry and try to get him to talk more with Mary.

Tell him that talking about his emotions for her is a way to show the magic word.

Harry: The magic word? What magic word?

Ginny: ‘Love’ , you stupid guy!

Harry: oh, yeah. I almost forgot! Maybe Sam’s not the only one who needs a little work on his magic. I guess I need it too.

Ginny: Is that a hint about St. Valentine’s Day coming up?

Harry: Saint who?

 

試做

Chapter 5

Never Too Late For Romance

Harry and Ginny are an engaged couple /concerned /about some friends /of theirs, Mary and Sam.

They[’ve known these friends /for many years], and [have watched their budding romance /with both (hope) and (concern)].

The American holiday “ ST. Valentine’s Day” is /only a few weeks away /on the calendar, and [talking about the topic /of (love) and (romance seems natural], so [that is the topic /of their conversation].

It is never too late /for romance.

Harry: [ I got another phone call /from Sam last night], and [after listening /to him /for a whole hour, I asked /if I could tell you /about it].

He said it was okay. Im hoping [you can help /with some advice /for him].

Ginny: What’s the matter? Is it the old story /about Mary being too quiet /with Sam?

Harry: Actually it’s the other way around! Mary seems /to be upset //because Sam isn’t talking enough /with her now.

Ginny: Well, that’s a change! It used to be [that she was a little too quiet /for him], isn’t that right?

Harry: That is right, yes. {Mary would go long periods /of time /without saying much}, and {Sam used /to feel [he didn’t know her very well]}.

He felt isolated, cut off /from her. He wanted /to hear her talk /about her emotions sometimes, wanted her /to show him [that he was special /to her].

Ginny: But then Sam succeeded. He persuaded Mary /to be more expressive, didn’t he?

Harryhe did. Well, now the problem is [that Mary has gotten /more expressive /than Sam!]

She’s complaining [that Sam’s too quiet],// that he doesn’t share his feelings enough]. Sam is so worried [he thinks (they might break up)].

Ginny: Well, that sounds like bad news. I know Mary, and I know Sam, and they’re both good people. It’s really sad to hear they’re having these problems.

Harry: It sure is sad. Sam’s the closest male friend [I’ve ever had !]

Ginny: You know, he seems to communicate well /with you. He tells you /about his troubles, //what he’s worried about, //things like that.

And you (listen) and (give him encouragement). Why can’t he talk /with Mary /like that too?

Harry: I agree. [ He can talk fine /with me], and [it seems /to help him /to get things off his chest].

But there seems to be a problem /with (his talking /with her).

Ginny: Well, I think [if Sam can talk /with you /in personal ways, //he ought to be able /to talk /with his girlfriend /too!]

Harry: Well, but that’s the problem. A lot of guys feel uncomfortable /talking /about (themselves) and (their feelings).

Some guys feel [they have /to be strong all the time] and [that means no admitting any weakness].

If they feel failures or are unhappy, they might not want to admit it to a girl.

Ginny: Do you think [that’s the problem]? If it is, weve got /to encourage Sam /to (open himself up) and (let Mary see his inside feelings /more often).

Harry: Do you know [what I think]? Deep inside Sam probably knows just how feels /about Mary, but [he can’t quite get the words out. His silence is hurting their relationship].

Ginny: You’re right, Harry. Here’s [what we can do]. Ill talk a little /with Mary and encourage her /to be more patient.

And you (talk /with Harry) and (try /to get him /to talk more /with Mary).

Tell him [that talking /about his emotions /for (her is a way /to show the magic word)].

Harry: The magic word? What magic word?

Ginny: ‘Love’ , you stupid guy!

Harry: oh, yeah. I almost forgot! Maybe Sam’s not the only one (who needs a little work /on his magic). I guess [I need it too].

Ginny: Is that a hint /about St. Valentine’s Day coming up?

Harry: Saint who?

 

 

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更新2011.12.21
 
初讀實用英文時我也有面臨除去舊學習法使用新方法的困惱,
 
最後,我選擇新的學習英文方法_空大的四步驟,當然有跟紀靜芬問過...簡單的對答,也許是因為她語氣堅定當著我面說:我專教別人教不來放棄的學生,年齡決不是問題。
 
進一步得到了回答是..根本是用錯方法學習英文、怪錯對象,於是就決定照著她的方式重零開始,剛開始一課花了我二天到三天的時間,還是問題多多,但堅持下去問題都能迎刃而解,而她確實從最基本的五大句型教起,親自出馬不假他人之手,全面支援我需要知道的最基本的常識,以及透過學校能用的設備全被她用上了,包括空大橋、討論區、面授,她下足功夫在英文教學上毫不鬆懈,當然也是有問必答不藏私。
 
當時她也專文撰寫過小熊的學習毅力期許後進者,在課堂上也偶而聽到她回答同學說:那為什麼他做得來而你做不來呢?
 
一位女同學回答,誤以為是跟著她面授課上課,被她立即糾正說,不是!是學他的毅力。
 
 
A1:關於空大英文文選的課文電視教學節目帶
 
請逕洽空大出版社詢問
 
A2:我覺得要跳脫循序漸進的課程設計必須經過陳博士專業檢定程序來判斷和討論,以非Wen Xiong 能力所及,
 
我只能就當初教我的面授指導者也是本課程的編撰者之一,Mrs.Chi的個人傳授教學經歷提供你初入空中大學的參考,我是有個好榜樣Mrs.Chi讓我來學習模仿和傳授指導相關英文閱讀方式ㄟ。
 
我沒有受過相關教學專業背景訓練,因此沒有更詳細的學習指導。
 
建議您去請益陳博士指導較為適當,下列是聯絡方式
 
當初我也是經過和他討論過我的的空大後期英文學習發展方向指導,現在才有能力看和從他那裏得知閱讀NyTimes/NPR...等英文網站,也曾和他在討論區問答過英文相關問題。因此,試試看和博士聯絡(全年無休)。
 
專長英語教育/陳達武博士官網:英文討論區
 
http://info.nou.edu.tw/thdeng/threads.cfm
 
祝~學習愉快 


Chapter 4
 
更新2012.02.24在文末的分段更正

更新2011.12.23 

A Lesson on Privacy


The first cultural shock (I had in America) is about privacy. I learned my lesson the hard way. It was my second year /of studying /in America. [The days were hard] and [we didn’t have many opportunities /to make American friends].

 
One day /an American couple-Steve and Ann- took (a friend) and (me) out /for a dinner). During the course /of the meal //we talked about lives naturally.
 
Steve and Ann cared about //[how we were doing /in America], [how our studying was going…etc].
 
To students /like us studying /in a foreign country, this kind of friendship meant a lot. In return /we asked them /about (their work), (their interests), and (their family), of course.
 
They told us [that they were doing very well] and [that their daughter -Julia-was about to get married].
 
Naturally /to show my deep gratitude /to their friendship,// I wanted /to show more.

 
I wanted /to make them really feel my amazement.????
 
I said to Ann:” Gee! It’s amazing [that your daughter is about to get married]. And yet, you still look so young.”
 
Ann replied, without any sign of annoyance:’ She is not mine.” She did not lose her smile /while saying. But I did.

 
This is an emergency ! I had not expected this. My immediate reaction was /to try /to turn this bad situation around.
 
I turned to Steve and said :” Still, it is amazing /for a father (who has a daughter about to get married). You look rather young.
 
Maybe you will become a grandfather /in a year or two. Isn’t that amazing?
 
You might be the youngest grandfather in the country.
 
Steve said: “ She is not mine, either.”
 
 I felt like (I had just eaten a live frog).

My head went blank. “ What went wrong?”
 
Sensing my embarrassment, Ann came to my rescue: “ Don’t feel bad. This is a little complicated.
 
You see, she is not really our daughter. She is the daughter /of Steve’s first wife (who had Julia /in her previous marriage).
 
Steve loves Julia /so much [that when he and his first wife were separated, Julia stayed with him].

And then [I married Steve] and [we all lived together //until she graduated /from high school].
 
We simply take her /as our daughter. Steve really takes good care of her.
 
He paid for her education and even is still paying the rent /for her apartment. And we are going to give her away /in the wedding.
 
She went /on explaining [that it is very natural for them]: “ Since Steve loves Julia and I love Steve, so we all love her.
 
We talk to her /on the phone /at least once or twice every day, and she comes to our house twice or three times a week. We are just a happy family.”

 
I was speechless.
 
You can imagine //how this incident has changed my idea of privacy.

What’s privacy? Nobody would deny //that privacy is very important.
 
Yet //when it comes the time /to demonstrate our respect l/of other person’s privacy,// we often do the opposite.
 
Too often we intrude on people’s privacy /by either (asking /too many questions /about people’s personal lives) or (assuming) //that almost everyone lives “ normal” lifestyle.
 
I made mistakes /on both counts.
 
Sometimes we fail to realize [that we are intruding other person’s privacy].
 
Because we think [that there is something (we need to know)].
 
It seems [that our need /to know something overrides all concerns /about privacy].
 
Consequently, we think [it is all right to do so].
 
We simply assume [that it doesn’t matter].
 
But more often than not, it does matter.
 
Questions /about personal lives /almost always make people involved uncomfortable.
 
If they keep it to themselves, we would think [it doesn’t matter and keep doing so].

 
But when they (feel very bad about it) and (make their displeasure known),// we may very well feel embarrassed.

Steve and Ann were very gracious. They handled my mistakes well and saved me /from further embarrassment.
 
What is even more remarkable is [that they even invited us to their home for the Thanksgiving dinner /about one month later].
 
Julia and her husband-to-be were there, too.
 
Had I not known their story //I would have believed [that she is really their daughter].
 
Steve and Ann acted /just like caring parents.
 
Steve and Ann invited us /to witness [that theirs is a truly happy family].

Several months later we attended the wedding. We could see [that Steve and Ann did their best /to make this a memorable ceremony].

 
In the church, Steve gave Julia away /to the bridegroom and Ann acted just like a joyful, caring mother.
 
Later, in the reception, we learned [that Julia’s biological parents were present, too].
 
They sat quietly (drinking) and (smoking //while Steve and Ann were busy tending guests).
 
It was obvious [that Steve and Ann showed more cheerful spirit than Julia’s biological parents did.
 
When people [are comfortable //with the kind of life //(they are enjoying)] and [are not doing any harm /to anyone], aren’t we sticking our nose //into their privacy /by assuming [what kind of “ normal” life (they should have)]. (2012.2.23更新)
 
&&主結構是 aren’t we sticking

副詞子句>When people [are comfortable //with the kind of life //(they are enjoying)] and [are not doing any harm /to anyone],
 
主要子句> aren’t we sticking our nose //into their privacy /by assuming

[what kind of “ normal” life (they should have)].

Chapter 3

 A Lesson on Privacy

Mr. Chen and Miss Wei―two Chinese students studying /in America―are invited /to attend a wedding ceremony /for an American couple's daughter. Since they all are /in a tight financial situation, they plan /to buy a gift /for the bride together.

So, they meet and have a little discussion about.

The couple’s names are (Steve) and (Ann), and their daughter’s name is Julia. Neither Steve nor Ann is Julia’s true parent.

Julia is Steve’s first wife’s daughter /from her first marriage. Julia [ came /to Steve’s home //when her mother married Steve], but [stayed /with Steve //when her mother broke up /with Steve].

Chen: Since we are the guests /of (Steve) and (Ann), I ‘d suggest [we buy a gift /for the bride together].

Wei: Indeed. Do you know [that almost all wedding gifts are /for the brides]?

I believe [that’s why Americans have bridal showers and not showers /for the bridegroom].

Chen :I see. I guess[ I have made the right suggestion /for the wrong reason].

So, what kind of gift /would you suggest?

Wei: Do you have any idea?

Chen: Me? I don’t have a clue /about picking a gift /for the bride.

Whatever you say is O.K. with me.

Wei: O.K. But first we need /to decide /on the budget.

(What kind /of price range) are (we talking about)?

Chen: How about /around 60 US dollars?

Wei: O.K.

Chen: I know [this is much higher than (what we generally would do)].

But considering the way Steve and Ann have treated us, I think [we should give Julia a really good gift].

Wei: Yeah, especially considering the embarrassment (your big mouth caused).

Chen: How could I know? I have never heard /of anything like this. Had you?

Wei: No. Actually I also assumed [that they are Julia’s biological parents //when I heard them /talking about “ our daughter”].

Chen: This really opened my eyes. When we hear people //talking about parents and children //we immediately assume [they are talking about biological parents and children].

Wei: It seems [that our idea /of (parents) or (children) is closely associated /with bloodline].

Theirs is a pretty special case.

Chen: Yeah. Who could have imagined [that (Steve) and (Ann) love Julia /so much //they simply take her /as their “ daughter”, //despite the fact [that Julia is not biologically /(related /to any one /of them) whatsoever].

Wei: True! Generally only the biological or legal parents are called: Dad or Mom. At least //that’s [what I thought].

Chen: Talking about a special case. In our culture //when a divorced person marries again, //(his)or ( her new other  half)generally do not call the person’s child //from previous marriage: (my son) or (my daughter).

And the child rarely calls the new (husband) or (wife): (my dad) or (my mom).

Wei: Just look at the way (Steve takes care of Julia),/ no one would ever doubt //if she is not his biological daughter.

Chen: neither would anyone doubt the relationship //between (Ann) and (Julia) /if you listen /to the way (Ann chats /with Julia).

Wei: Yeah. On appearance, they do look /like a perfectly happy family. I wish [I would have a family /like this one].

Chen: You mean [you also are going /to marry someone (who already has children /from his previous marriage)]?

Wei: No, I didn’t mean that part.

Chen: Frankly speaking, I seriously doubt /if I could ever have this kind /of love/ if my future wife also has children /from her previous marriage. Could you?

Wei: I…I really don’t know. This is a tough one. I have never expected this kind /of marriage, /to begin with.

Chen: Me too. We were all raised /to expect a very typical marriage. In this sense, our idea /of parental love is strictly limited /to our own biological children.

Wei: Isn’t this [what we call: a normal family]? Then, what does (Steve) and (Ann’s family) make? Tell me, if you were /in Steve’s shoes, will you treat Julia/ as your very own?

Chen: It will be very hard, to be frank. It will be even harder /after her mother and I were separated. For what?

Wei: Yeah, I know [what you meant]. Isn’t that even more amazing?

Chen : You can say that again.

What would you do /if you were in my shoes?

What does Steve and Ann’s family make?

Wei: Fortunately they did not take your questions too personally. And Ann was kind enough /to explain /to us their wonderful story.
 
Chen: Why didn’t you do something t/o bail me out?

Wei: me? I was startled too. Before I was able /to think /of anything /to say //you were at it again.

Chen: Me and my big mouth.

Wei: At least we learned a valuable lesson /about love and privacy.

Chen: Tell me about it.
 
Wei: So now //I guess [you will know (what to do /in the wedding reception)].

Chen: Yeah, yeah. I will put a zipper /on my mouth.


 

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Chapter 1 

For Your Laughter ( I ) -- Crazy Drivers ( I ) 

國立空中大學 版權所有 Copyright © 2010 National Open University All Rights Reserved

 

For Your Laughter(1) -Crazy Driver(I)

The Following stories of crazy drivers are reportedly //to be true. Be careful.

下列瘋狂駕駛的故事據說是真實的故事,小心駕駛 

 

Parking a Car

On October 13 1993,// a British woman tried //to park her car //into a curbside space,// measured at 19.36m,// equivalent //to three standard parking spaces.

She [started the maneuver at 11.15 a.m.] and [successfully parked her car //within three feet //of the pavement],// (eight hours) and (fourteen minutes later).

There were a few misfortunes,// of course,// considering the long duration //of such a maneuver.

The casualties included: damages //to (the bumpers) and (wings //of her own car) and (two cars happened //to sit near by), (shop frontage), and yes, (two lampposts). 

On April 2, 1987, //a British doctor drove a Saab 900, //with her hand brake on, //for 313 miles (500 kilometers).

Only two miles into her journey// the doctor smelled something burning.

But she pressed on,// with smoke billowing //from the rear wheels.

In addition, //[the right turn signal was flashing] and [the choke was fully out //during the whole journey]. 

 

Know Thy Car

An elderly woman went //for a shopping //in a mall.

Upon returning to the parking lot, she found four males //sitting in her car.

She (dropped her shopping bags) and (drew a handgun //from her purse).

She [raised her gun] and [screamed //at the top //of her voice].

Do you see [what I am holding //in my hand]? I know [how to shoot]. Now,// you get out //of my car, //punks! The four men didn’t wait around //for a second instruction. They (got out) and (ran //like hell).

The lady then (packed her gun),// (loaded her shopping bags //into the trunk) and (got into the driver’s seat).

But she just could not start the car: her key wouldn’t fit into the ignition.

Finally she found out [that her own car was parked(four) or (five spaces away), //which was identical //to this one. She (loaded her bags //into her car) and (drove //to the police station).

Inside the police station, four pale white males were reporting a car-jacking //by a mad elderly white woman. The police sergeant nearly tore himself //in two //with laughter.(12_14更正後males)

No charges were filed. 

 

Are You Blind (I)

Two Tennessee people decide //to go //for a ride //after [they were drunk late //in the night].

The blind person asked the owner //of the BMW //to let him drive it,// because , //he figured, /he knew his own road well enough //to drive //with his friend’s help.

So they (put the top //of the BMW convertible down) and (went for a spin //in the rain).

Spin (they did).

The BMW (missed a sharp left curve) and (smashed into a tree).

[The driver, blind //since age six, //broke his arm] and [the owner had a shattered leg].

Both were fined //for driving under influence. The driver later told the Tennessee Highway Patrol troopers //to ‘ never let a blind drive.” 

 

Are You Blind (II)

A senior citizen was driving home //after work //when his cell phone rang.

It was his wife //on the phone.

She said,” Listen,” Listen, I just heard on the TV //[that there was acar //driving the wrong way //on the interstate highway]. You be careful.”

The elderly man answered, //It’s not just one car, dear,// it’s hundreds!” 

 

Are You Blind (III)

Not too long ago, //the state of Georgia produced a tape //for blind people.

It is the audio version //of a book published //by the Dept. of Transportation //of the state //of Georgia.

The title of the book-//The Georgia motorcycle operators’ manual.

[What do you think]is the purpose //of this audio tape? 

 

I Dare You ( Speed Enforcement, Mongolia-Style)

In Mongolia,// the police invented a creative way //to stop speeding.

When a driver is speeding,// sirens along the main street will go off.

(Customers) or (pedestrians) //along the street {will just pick up (old boxes) and (furniture),// set specifically //by (the shopkeepers) and (caf owners)}, and {throw them //at (the offending driver) and (his passengers)}.

They will eventually be (pulled //from the vehicle) and (covered //in camel dung).

For nine years no one has ever tried speeding again.

過去九年來再也沒有汽車駕駛人敢嘗試超速

 

Speeding Ticket of a Different Kind

不同種類的速度罰單。Speeding ticket 超速罰單

Sometime in 1998,// a retired British senior citizen lost his license //for driving too slowly //on a country road.

Police saw Douglas Illingworth, //aged 83, //traveling //at 1 mph //with a long trail //of cars behind him //on the A61 country road, //near the city //of Barnsley.

Barnsley magistrates (barred him //from driving //for a year), //(gave him a conditional discharge) and (ordered //to take an eye test). 

 

Are You Insured?

Sometime ago //in St. Louis, a car hit a bus //carrying 5 passengers.

By the time //the police arrived //on the scene, there were 14 //more people //on the bus,// all complaining //about (whiplash injuries) and (back pain).

 

 

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榮譽第一
※考試時間請關閉手機,手機鈴響,依規定扣分
國立空中大學    歷屆考題 101學年度上學期期中考試題【正題】01
科目:英文文選 一律橫式作答             3-1頁


一、 英文閱讀方法測驗。依據課程中教的拆解句子的方法作答,請不要浪費時間翻譯句子的意思。
60%。
分段是正確解讀句子的第一步,
請將第一和第二題的句子分段﹝提示:注意逗點、連接詞、子句或介系詞片語,
只要分得合理就可以﹞,請將每一段抄在答案紙上,長的段落只要寫下開頭和結尾的字即可。
第一題請分成八段,第二題分成六段


1. Trooper Thomas reported that he saw the woman holding the steering wheel with her left hand and putting on makeup with her right hand, looking in the rearview mirror at the same time.

2. He focused on marriage in Japan, but his words struck me because he talked of how a marriage may lack romance.
第一次作業就練習過將一個長句子,依據重要性分為三塊來解讀(也就是貼身、保暖、裝飾的觀念),請將第三和第四這二題分成這樣的三塊。句子已經用斜線分段,只要寫出代碼即可。答題的重點是貼身的一定要對,否則整題沒分數。

3. A crowd of old ladies/ in a 7-11/ standing around chatting/, and when the clock strikes seven/ they all get in line/ to buy their lucky tickets.

4. But sometimes/ we don’t realize/ how different our perspectives can be/ because we belong/ to a different culture?

5. To cross your fingers, placing your index finger over your middle finger, is supposed to improve your luck, whether you are gambling in a casino or asking someone out on a date. (一)這句話用三個逗點將它分成了四段話,請問那二段話可以先不理會?請寫下號碼即可;(二)這句話的主詞是甚麼?

6. I believe we may hurt others more by the words we do not say than by the words we do say. 這個句子之中共有幾個子句?請將他們一一列出,只要寫下每段的開頭和結尾的字即可。

國立空中大學101學年度上學期期中考試題【正題】01
科目:英文文選    一律橫式作答    3-2頁

7. When we hear people talking about parents and children we immediately assume they are talking about biological parents and children. 請問這句話的主要結構(主詞和動詞)是那個字?

8. Ah, I thought to myself, since today is St. Valentine’s Day, and she’s been married all those years, she’ll be able to tell me a lot about romance.

請問﹝一﹞這句話中的連接詞 and 是連接那二段話?只要寫出每段開頭和結尾的字即可;﹝二﹞這句話的「主要結構」是那一段話?只要寫下開頭和結尾的字即可。

9. But considering the way Steve and Ann have treated us, I think we should give Julia a really good gift. 這個句子中共有二個子句,請將每個子句抄下來,抄整句不給分,多一字或少一字也不給分。

10. Before the homecoming game/, and even during and after/, you can see many people/, wearing their team's colors/, milling around their trucks and cars in the parking lot.

(1) 這句話被四個逗點分成五段,請問那一段才是主要的結構?
(2) 最後二段都是修飾語,請問它們是修飾那個字的?

二、閱讀測驗。解讀句子的綜合測驗。40%,1-5題每題6分,第六題10分。
1. Sometime ago in St. Louis, a car hit a bus carrying 5 passengers. By the time the police arrived on the scene, there were 14 more people on the bus, all complaining about whiplash injuries and back pain.警察到場時,公車上共有幾個人?
(1) 19 (2) 5 (3) 14 (4) 9

2. She was curling her eyelashes in the rearview mirror as she changed two lanes in bumper-to-bumper, 65 mph traffic. She made it without a scratch, while I got rear-ended in my distraction.請問:最後一句的大意指的是甚麼?
(1) 他有事故(2) 我有事故(3) 他沒事而我有事故 (4) 我沒事而他有事故

國立空中大學101學年度上學期期中考試題【正題】01
科目:英文文選  一律橫式作答                     3-3頁

3. Wei: Isn’t this what we call: a “normal” family? Then, what does Steve and Ann’s family make? Tell me, if you were in Steve’s shoes, will you treat Julia as your very own? 這段對話中說的 a “normal” family是甚麼意思?
(1) 有爸媽和小孩的 (2) 小孩是父母親生的 (3) 合法的婚姻 (4) 不是單親家庭

4. Mr. Stetson: So I see you're all decked out in the old school colors. Showing some spirit for the old alma mater, eh?
從上下文中可否解釋Showing some spirit for the old alma mater是什麼意思?
(1) 展現運動的精神 (2) 展現對母校的支持 (3) 展現母校的精神 (4) 展現熱愛運動的精神

5. Burton (weighing the present in his hands): This would be one of Aunt Betty’s fruit cakes. It is only good for one thing late at night-- as a weapon against muggers.
Anne: No, that’s not true. It’s great when you have to stay up all night studying. The heartburn makes it impossible to sleep.
請問: Burton 和 Anne 這樣講話的重點是甚麼?
(1) 討厭這個蛋糕 (2) 說明這個蛋糕的額外用途 (3) 諷刺這個蛋糕 (4) 拿這個蛋糕很硬開玩笑

6. During a rainy, rush-hour traffic in Feb. 1998, a woman was stopped by the highway patrol for applying a makeup while driving. Trooper Thomas reported that he saw the woman holding the steering wheel with her left hand and putting on makeup with her right hand, looking in the rearview mirror at the same time.

The woman appealed her case but was rejected, on the ground that she displayed a wanton or willful disregard for the safety of other. “The trooper had a right to pull this person over,” the judge said. “He doesn’t have to wait until an accident happens.”
這段文句中有那一段話足以協助解答to pull this person over的意思?只要寫下開頭和結尾的字即可,抄整句不給分。

參考答案:
一、英文閱讀方法測驗。
1. Trooper Thomas reported/ that he saw the woman/ holding the steering wheel/ with her left hand/ and putting on makeup/ with her right hand/, looking in the rearview mirror/ at the same time.
2. He focused/ on marriage/ in Japan/, but his words struck me/ because he talked of/ how a marriage may lack romance.
3. 貼身: 5、保暖: 4 & 6、裝飾: 1,2 & 3
4. 貼身: 2、保暖: 3 & 4、裝飾: 1 & 5
5. 2, 4; To cross your fingers
6. (1) we…words; (2) we do not say; (3) we do say
7. 主詞: we; 動詞: assume
8. (1) today… Day and she’s… years; (2) I thought to myself
9. (1) Steve and Ann have treated us (2) we should give Julia a really good gift
10. (1) 3; (2) many people

二、閱讀測驗。
1. 1
2. 3
3. 2
4. 2
5. 4
6. a woman was stopped 或是 a woman…driving

 

 

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